The nineteenth century

 
 

Nineteenth century and Risorgimento

(edited by Simona Bellucci and Francesco Deplanu)

From the end of the Roman Republic (29 September 1799) the provisional military administrations followed one another until the recovery in June 1800 of the territories of Lazio, Umbria and Marche. With the edict of the Secretary of State Consalvi of 22 June 1800, the state territory was reorganized and 7 apostolic delegations were established with a delegate residing in the capital (Viterbo, Spoleto, Perugia, Camerino, Macerata, Ancona and Urbino); the suburban provinces of Civitavecchia, Campagna and Marittima (with the capital Frosinone), Sabina (with the capital Rieti) were also established.

The papal restoration of 1799 marks a momentary halt to the spread of  liberal and democratic ideas that manifest themselves during the revolutionary experience of the Roman Republic.

The papal state is, however, very weak and is again occupied by Napoleon  from  1808 until 1814. The Marches are united to the Kingdom of Italy while in 1809, the Papal State is suppressed, Umbria and Lazio are annexed to the Napoleonic Empire with a territorial articulation in two departments of the Tiber (or of Rome) and Trasimeno, in turn divided into districts (arrondissements) and cantons, the smallest of the state districts.

Italy in the Napoleonic era (1810) from wikipedia. The user who originally uploaded the file was  Eltharion  from  Italian Wikipedia licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 :  

https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stati_italiani_nell%27era_napoleonica#/media/File:Italia_1810.jpg


The Trasimeno Department included the arrondissements of Spoleto, Perugia, Todi, Foligno. The administration of each department was entrusted to a prefect, a prefecture general secretary and a department general council. Each district (arrondissement-province) was administered by a sub-prefect. Within the individual cantons, the communes were administered by the maire (mayor), and by a municipal council. The maires remained in office for 5 years and were chosen from among the municipal councilors, who were in turn chosen from among the 100 major contributors. Municipalities with a budget of more than 20,000 francs had to keep a municipal receiver, and in 1804 a tax collector in connection with the arrondissement receiver and the department's general receiver. 

Thus, on July 13, 1809,  Fratta returns to Canton,  "... with a justice of the peace, Griffier Uscieri, ... and Domenico Bruni maire di Fratta. The coats of arms were replaced by an" added "and ten municipal councilors. With the bulletin of the Supreme Council of State no. 123 of November 23, 1810, confirmed by imperial decree January 3, 1812 inserted in the bulletin of laws at no. 416, Fratta was declared the chief town of the Canton with an increase in the territory formed by other fractions; a court was established under the title of Giudicatura di pace, "which it was subject to various municipalities, castles and villages "and, in addition, the civil status office was established."

 

When the Napoleonic experience ended in 1814, the power of the State of the Church was restored. After the papal Restoration, Bartolomeo Borghi, archpriest to S.Andrea di Sorbello, excellent cartographer of the Municipality,  he is arrested and convicted for having highlighted himself as a pro-French revolutionary.  The pontifical institutions were restored but the innovations in the administrative field that had brought the Napoleonic period were also seen in central Italy. The State of the Church gave life to the creation of that document, born for tax purposes but which has become a very important historical source that the " Gregorian Cadastre ": a geometric-particle cadastre with the "brogliardi" to trace the properties, and qualities, of the both rural and urban properties. The land of Fratta was also registered . Also with a  "motu proprio" of  July 6, 1816, Fratta did not turn out  more capital of government but simple "municipality", administered from Perugia by means of a mayor. It became  again the municipality of residence of the governors in 1817. The new statistics of 1833 confirmed Fratta as the capital of the second class government: at the head of this district there was a governor with competence to judge up to two hundred scudi, and included the municipalities of Fratta, Montone and Pietralunga.

Post of the State Archives of Rome on Facebook with a chorographic map of the "Ecclsesiastico State" where "Fratta" is clearly visible

 

In the post you can read: ... "Pope Pius VII and his Secretary of State, Cardinal Consalvi, with the motu proprio" When by admirable provision "of 1816, initiate a profound reorganization of the administration.  The edict of November 26, 1817, "Allotment of the governments and communities of the Papal State with their respective appodiates", sanctions the new political geography: the State, with the exception of the Comarca of Rome, is divided into 17 provinces governed by delegates. Benevento was also included. "

ASR, General Presidency of the Census, Archive Register of maps and census papers, 1842-43.

At that time, the city center is much smaller than it is today, with only 900-1000 residents, most of whom live in the countryside.  The total population is approximately 10,000 inhabitants. Papal dominion expresses a very strong presence of ecclesiastical authority, which also holds the most important civil offices. Not only that, but much of the land is in the hands of the convents and religious orders. The agricultural economy, dominated by the sharecropping system, is poor and stagnant.

The papal regime is not particularly brutal, but it keeps everything under control with a very widespread spy network. Fratta, like other centers  Umbrian, participates in the uprisings of 1830-31, where Luigi Vibi and Petronio Reggiani distinguished themselves. Also this time the patriots of Fratta and the others failed to achieve lasting results. On the other hand, the riots did not have better results in the other parts of Italy. Freemasonry and Carbonari had been the promoters, animated by the bourgeoisie, enlightened aristocracy and artisan class. 

In the following period the republican ideas of Mazzini and other moderate ideologues of the Risorgimento spread. In 1848-49, when a new revolutionary outbreak occurs,  Fratta participates with 26 volunteers, both enrolled in the papal troops in the first war of independence, and, after the turnaround of Pius IX, as fighters in defense of the Roman Republic. Once again, a failure and consequent papal restoration must be recorded. Shortly after in 1859,  23 people were enrolled in the second war of independence. As many as 31 volunteers in 1866 and 1867, the latter following the proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy, for the conquest of Veneto and Rome still missing.

The Risorgimento brought the real change: the  12 September 1860 the Piedmontese soldiers of General Manfredo Fanti entered the town and "  ... a provisional government junta was proclaimed with full powers in the persons of Messrs. Costantino Magi Spinetti, Raffaele Santini, Giuseppe Agostini and Luigi Igi. "The decree issued by the Marquis Gualterio, royal commissioner for the provinces of Perugia and Orvieto dates back to 14 September. , with which a provisional municipal commission was set up, whose attributions followed the pontifical ones, pending the enactment of the new municipal law. With decree n. 64 of 21 October 1860, issued by the royal commissioner Pepoli, the plebiscitary referendum was called, for the of the annexation to the Kingdom of Savoy . ".

Two years later the Municipality of became Umbertide. The choice of the name with its motivation is complicated and was born after the unification of Italy at the request of the unitary state to avoid administrative "misunderstandings" due to the numerous "Fratta" existing in the Italian territory .... If you can simplify how the choice of the name took place we can say that the men of the time on the one hand tried to connect it to its historical origin with the reference to "Fracta filiorum Uberti", ie Uberto natural son of Ugo king of Italy, who would have founded it in the 10th century; this requirement, however, was welded to a "political" requirement connected to the contemporary historical moment (the Unification of Italy), with the reference of the name of Umbertide to that of the hereditary prince of the House of Savoy. For completeness, we insert an excerpt from the page of the "Siusa" on the history of Umbertide:

 

In the resolution of December 14, 1862, the commissioner Mauro Mavarelli, president of the assembly, announced that the royal prefect, with dispatch of July 10, n. 13341, by assignment received from the Ministry of the Interior, invited the mayor of Fratta to propose to the council in one of its next sessions "the resolution, if not to change the current name of the Municipality, at least to make some addition to it, from to deduce from the specialty of the situation, and this to avoid misunderstandings and embarrassments, as well as to public administrations as well as to private individuals, which derive from the multiplicity of Municipalities that call themselves under the name of Fratta ". The mayor and the council, therefore, were of the opinion to appoint a commission composed of ... " those who considered themselves most informed of the history of the country ".

In 1862 the mayor and the municipal council, with provision no. 1591 of 21 September, proceeded with the appointment of the commission, for the above purpose, composed of Costantino Magi Spinetti, Ruggero Burelli and Genesio Perugini, with the task of proposing a new name for Fratta. On the following October the members of the commission, after having listed the old names of Fratta, such as Forum Bremitii, Forum [Iulii] Concubiense, Pitulum, Fracta Filiorum Uberti and, according to Lauri, Fracta insigne Umbertinorum Oppidum, believed that the latter name in particular it was more "representative of current events if it bears a tribute to the sovereign, Umberto or Uberto, hereditary prince of the king of Italy": the proposal of "Umberta" or "Umbertide" was approved with seven votes in favor and one against.

On January 25, 1863, due to certain discontent among the population regarding the new name of the Municipality and the fact that the resolution "was taken on second call with a small number of councilors", the Prefecture, with dispatch dated January 15, no. . 574 div. 5 sec. 10, ordered to propose the same object again in a new resolution. The lawyer Costantino Magi Spinetti gave reasons why the council was persuaded to abandon the old name Fratta, as "it recalled its destruction by the barbarians, and the consequent foreign domination, proposing instead to replace Umbertide for Umberta as the most I consented to the tradition, since from the same it appears that it was not Umberto, but his sons, who were the founders of this land ". This proposal was unanimously approved by roll call. "

Fratta was governed by a moderate liberal majority for a long period until 1887. After the resignation of the mayor Mauro Mavarelli, in 1889 the Democrats and the republicans obtained the majority for a short period, but in the early nineties the moderate block took over the Municipality, of which Francesco Mavarelli is mayor from 1892 to 1898. 

The problems of Umbertide after the Unification, but also before, were those that gripped the country. The agricultural economy was stagnant, illiteracy widespread, infectious diseases caused many deaths. Communications and industry languished.

At the end of the century there were progresses in the field of literacy, with the foundation of numerous rural schools and also in the health one, with the birth of a new modern hospital in 1878 as well as hygienic rehabilitation interventions,  however, the agricultural economy, based on sharecropping, is unable to provide work for a growing population. In fact, especially in the 1980s, strong migratory currents began to appear.

LA PIU' ANTICA-1892Storiche archivio Bel

Umbertide 1892

Sources:  

- Simona Bellucci, " The incomplete modernization. Umbertide peasants and owners between the nineteenth and twentieth centuries ". Edimond, Città di Castello 2004.

- SIUSA (Unified Information System for Archival Superintendencies) on Umbertide

http://siusa.archivi.beniculturali.it/cgi-bin/pagina.pl?TipoPag=prodente&Chiave=50311&RicProgetto=reg-umb&fbclid=IwAR2ydRABe1Uw3MxVbj3WkZrexe4eu0lBSPZe_991_1LwwGoww

- http://siusa.archivi.beniculturali.it/cgi-bin/pagina.pl?TipoPag=profist&Chiave=84&RicProgetto=reg%2dumb

- http://siusa.archivi.beniculturali.it/cgi-bin/pagina.pl?TipoPag=comparc&Chiave=330615&RicProgetto=reg%2dumb

- E. Gerardi, "Institutional features and documentation in the French period and in the Restoration", in the Archival Superintendency for Lazio, "The municipal historical archives. Archival lessons", Quaderni dell Rivista storico del Lazio, 1 (1998), pp. 37-52.

- Photo: historical photos of Umbertide from the web and from various private archives  to which  we applied the " umbertidestoria " watermark  in this way we try to avoid that further disclosure on our part favors purposes that are not consonant with our intentions, social and cultural exclusivities.

The Fratta of 1843
by Zuccagni Orlandini

(Curated by Francesco Deplanu)

 

"The conspicuous village of FRATTA, in ancient Fracta, lies on the left bank of the Tiber which crosses there over a bridge, raised not far from its confluence with the Roggio ..."

 

In the pre-unification period Attilio Zuccagni-Orlandini, Florentine geographer and cartographer, edited a "Physical, Historical and Statistical Chorography of Italy and its Islands accompanied by an Atlas, geographic and topographic maps" of 19 volumes and a large atlas in 5 volumes .  In the X volume of 1843, he dealt with the PONTIFICAL STATE with two "Supplements". In one of these here we find the description of the DELEGATION OF PERUGIA, with the "District" of Città di Castello where the GOVERNMENT OF FRATTA is also described, which also included the "Municipalities of Montone and Pietralunga.  

 

Our "capital" was divided at the time with its 18 hamlets and 3 "Appodiati" (Civitella Ranieri, Poggio Manente and Preggio), in turn with 10 total fractions.

 

This text is a notable document for its geographical, but also political and administrative indications before the religious alienations that occurred with the Kingdom of Italy, for the rest of the information, which we report completely below, the description of the origins of the city is completely affected by the "historical" knowledge of the time, that is, they are not very accurate and substantially "literary". We also point out the indication of "Raggio" for the Reggia or Regghia torrent. A similar judgment could also be said about the information on the most important Abbey in the area, that is of S. Salvatore di Montecorona and Eremo Superiore, were it not for the state of the organization of the Camaldolese system reported here. Organizational system that disappeared within twenty years with the dictatorial decree of 11 December 1860, n. 205 of the Royal Commissioner General of Umbria Pepoli.

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As regards the description of the territory of Umbria, Zuccagni-Oralndini reports in full the administrative division of the PONTIFICAL STATE with the DELEGATION OF PERUGIA  (with 4 DISTRICTS: Perugia District, Città di Castello District, Foligno District, Todi District).  

Of limited interest to us is the description of the DISTRICT OF CITTA 'di CASTELLO (with 2 Governments: Città di Castello and Fratta, 4 Municipalities and 176 “Appodiati”). In fact, the GOVERNMENT OF THE FRATTA insists within this last "District".  

As for the "Government of Fratta", the administrative division in 1843 is as follows: the "Capital", Fratta, with 18 "hamlets" (Castiglion dell'Abbate, Civitella di quà e di là, Leoncini, Migianella de 'Marchesi, Montalto with Cicaleto and Romeggio, Monte Acuto, Monte Castelli, Monte Migiana, Pieve di Migianella, Polgeto, Rasina, S. Cassiano, S. Giovanni di Certaldo, S. Giuliano delle Pignatte, S. Giuliano di Monte Corona, S. Silvestro dell ' Arcelle,

Sportacciano, Verna)  and 3 "Appodiati": Civitella Ranieri with 2 "hamlets" (S. Giovan Batista di Fratta, S. Giovanni Evangelista di Serra Partazio), Poggio Manente with 3 "hamlets" (Monte Lovesco -in part-, S. Paterniano di Pierantonio , S. Salvadore di M. Cosante -in part-) and Preggio with 6 “hamlets” (Bastia Creti, S. Andrea in Penetole (annex), Monestevole, Racchiusole, S. Bartolomeo dei Fossi, S. Paolo).

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Fig. 1-2-7:  Extracts from the  Zaccagni- Orlandini “Physical, Historical and Statistical Chorography of Italy and its Islands accompanied by an Atlas, geographic and topographical maps”. Supplement to volume X, Florence, 1843

Lo Zaccagni - Orlandini  after having described Città di Castello at greater length, he dwells on our country and above all on the Hermitage and the Abbey of Montecorona. Below the analysis that refers to Fratta, today Umbertide.

 

 

 

 

GOVERNMENT OF THE FRATTA.

 

“The conspicuous village of FRATTA, in ancient Fracta, lies on the left bank of the Tiber which crosses there over a bridge, raised not far from its confluence with the Roggio. The largest temple, with a round shape, has the title of collegiate; adjacent to two other churches rise the convents of the Conventuali and of the Osservanti, Resta. still standing the tower, within which in 1393 Fortebraccio was enclosed by captain Tuzio, then by Biordo, Michelotti freed. This municipality has a gymnasium for public education, various charitable institutions, and an elegant theater that is modernly open: in the most delightful position of the surroundings the Capuchins have a convent. When some writers of the Etruscan Cortonese Academy are to be believed, near the banks of the Carpino stream, which flows into the Tiber not far from Fratta, there would have been the Forum of Giulio Umbro, Forum Julii Concubiense, with a sacred temple to Vulcano, allusive to the dexterity of the inhabitants in iron work and in handling weapons. Meanwhile, the Umbrian writers believe that Fratta rose on the ruins of the ancient Pitulum, by the care of the children of a certain Uberto, who then enjoyed the lordship: this opinion may perhaps be supported, but it cannot be hidden that Pliny was the Pitulani placed in the Lazio. Pietralunga and Montone are among the towns of this government; in the municipal boundaries of the capital there is Monte Corona, worthy of special mention like them.

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Fig. 3-4: Extracts from the orographic map and the Roman-medieval historical thematic map, based on the indications of Zuccagni-Orlandini, the names written in Latin characters indicate the localities existing under the dominion of the Romans, in Gothic characters "pointed" the places of the Middle Ages. "Geographic Atlas of the Italian States outlined above the best and most modern maps, to serve as a complement to the physical, historical and statistical chorography of Italy, by Attilio Zuccagni-Orlandini (Florence, 1844). Work in two volumes. From https://phaidra.cab.unipd.it/ distributed under Creative Commons License CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

Monte Corona, by Camaldolensi hermits, is a Cenobio built in an alpine mountain top, which however can be ascended by a not uncomfortable winding path. That sanctuary is surrounded by very high walls, crowned by firs and cypresses. The largest temple corresponds to a square with an inclined plane; a portico and an atrium make access more smooth. The internal walls are richly decorated: the division of the vast monastery is similar to that of any other monastery of the same order: beyond the isolated hermits' boxes, the Foresteria, the Infirmary, the Definitory for the mọnastic comizj are gathered in a single building: in a segregated part called the Reclusorio, the hermits' quarters meet, who dedicate themselves to a more austere life.

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Fig. 5: Political map of the Pontifical State Delegation of Perugia of 1843 of  Zaccagni- Orlandini focused on the “Fratta”. "Geographic Atlas of the Italian States outlined above the best and most modern maps, to serve as a complement to the physical, historical and statistical chorography of Italy, by Attilio Zuccagni-Orlandini (Florence, 1844). Work in two volumes. From https: / /phaidra.cab.unipd.it/ distributed under Creative Commons License CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

The avenues interposed between the detached cells lead to the highest summit, rightly designated with the name of Belvedere, as you can enjoy enchanting scenes from it. Near the boreal aquifer of Monte-Corona stands on the banks of the Tiber the Abbey of S. Salvadore, where the administrative office of the upper Hermitage resides: here the monks live, due to age or inconvenience, no longer able to sustain life lonely. The vast church, of ancient but elegant design, has three magnificent naves with a subterranean confession, and is divided in such a way that its lower part will serve as a parish, and the highest one to the office of the monks. The cloister is grandiose; the Abbadia districts are vast; the gardens and vineyards that surround it are well cultivated. It is said that S. Romualdo had it built four years before the Tuscan Hermitage: in 1050 the government was entrusted to S. Pier Damiani. From the Camaldolensi it passed for some time to the Cistercenşi: it was then made Conmenda: in 1524 the Commendalore Gabbriello da Fano, consecrated to the hermit life, recovered its possession and had it given its current form. On the slope of the mountain above there was a very ancient oratory consecrated to S. Savino: the patrician Beltramo from Perugia donated it in 1209 to the Camaldolensi: three centuries later the Venetian monk B. Paolo Giustiniani deduced a colony of hermits, who built their houses; but their number then grew so that it was forced to build the current Hermitage around 1510. Subsequently that monastery was declared head of the Camaldolense Congregation of Monte-Corona. "

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Fig. 6: Excerpt from Political Map of the Pontifical State Delegation of Perugia from 1843 of  Zaccagni- Orlandini focused on the “Fratta”. "Geographic Atlas of the Italian States outlined above the best and most modern maps, to serve as a complement to the physical, historical and statistical chorography of Italy, by Attilio Zuccagni-Orlandini (Florence, 1844). Work in two volumes. From https: / /phaidra.cab.unipd.it/ distributed under Creative Commons License CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

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Sources:

-Attilio Zuccagni-Orlandini edited a "Physical, Historical and Statistical Chorography of Italy and its Islands accompanied by an Atlas, geographic and topographical maps". Supplement to volume X, Florence, 1843.

-Delegation map of Perugia from vol. 2 ° of "Geographic Atlas of the Italian States outlined above the best and most modern maps, to serve as a complement to the physical, historical and statistical chorography of Italy, by Attilio Zuccagni-Orlandini (Florence, 1844). Work in two volumes. From https://phaidra.cab.unipd.it/ distributed under Creative Commons License CC BY-NC-SA 4.

-  Charter of the Papal State under the rule of the Romans and in the Middle Ages. Local names used by the Romans and in the Middle Ages, with the corresponding modern names.

- Orographic and hydrographic map of the Papal State. Heights of the main localities. Overview of the main mineral products. 

- Modern charter of the Papal State. Prospectus of the political divisions of the Papal State. From vol. 2 ° of "Geographic Atlas of the Italian States outlined above the best and most modern maps, to serve as a complement to the physical, historical and statistical chorography of Italy, by Attilio Zuccagni-Orlandini (Florence, 1844). Work in two volumes. From https://phaidra.cab.unipd.it/ distributed under Creative Commons License CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

 

 

 

Fig. 4-5: Extracts of the orographic map and the Roman-medieval historical thematic map, based on the indications of Zuccagni-Orlandini, the names written in Latin characters indicate the localities existing under the dominion of the Romans, in Gothic characters "pointing" the places of the Middle Ages. "Geographic Atlas of the Italian States outlined above the best and most modern maps, to serve as a complement to the physical, historical and statistical chorography of Italy, by Attilio Zuccagni-Orlandini (Florence, 1844). Work in two volumes. From https://phaidra.cab.unipd.it/ distributed under Creative Commons License CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

 

 

 

 

Fig. 6: Excerpt from Political Map of the Pontifical State Delegation of Perugia from 1843 of  Zaccagni- Orlandini focused on the “Fratta”. "Geographic Atlas of the Italian States outlined above the best and most modern maps, to serve as a complement to the physical, historical and statistical chorography of Italy, by Attilio Zuccagni-Orlandini (Florence, 1844). Work in two volumes. From https: / /phaidra.cab.unipd.it/ distributed under Creative Commons License CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

Alexis de Toqueville

" When the past no longer illuminates the future, the spirit walks in darkness."


"When the past no longer illuminates the future, the spirit walks in darkness ".

 

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