THE RISORGIMENTO AND THE GARIBALDINI IN UMBERTIDE

 

Edited by

Fabio Mariotti

 

 

The Risorgimento in Umbertide

 

Ninety Umbertidesi volunteers participated

to the battles for a united Italy

 

by Amedeo Massetti

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The enthralling charm of Garibaldi's fame, especially among the republican and liberal ranks, also spread to Fratta and many young people followed him with passion and attachment for about twenty years, from the first to the last hour, from the defense of republican Rome in 1849, to the attempt to overthrow the papal government in Mentana in 1867. With Captain Luigi Vibi , on the walls of Rome there were twenty-six other young people from Fratta. In addition, another 28 Umbertidesi volunteers came in 1859 in the Second War of Independence and another 23 in 1866 in Condino and Bezzecca. In Mentana, in 1867, there were 31 boys from Umbertide.

Three of them never returned: on 21 June 1849, Captain Luigi Vibi was shot to death at Porta di San Pancrazio on the walls of Rome; on July 16, 1866, corporal Giuseppe Mastriforti fell in Condino in the province of Trento; on November 3, 1867, Giovanni Battista Igi sacrificed himself in Mentana.

The plaque in Piazza Matteotti shows the names of the 90 volunteers who contributed to the achievement of National Unity. They are listed in alphabetical order, without distinction of the campaigns carried out. Some of them were present in more than one Garibaldi campaign.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Among those who lost their lives in those events, it is necessary to remember Berlicche ( Cipriano Angioloni ). He was from Città di Castello, but was shot by the Austrians in the open space at the beginning of Via Secoli after the public wash houses. They called him Berlicche, like one of the devils, because he was a great blasphemer whom he had followed Garibaldi up to two days earlier. Giuseppe Bertanzi, in a letter written to his friend Giuseppe Amizie from Città di Castello, tells us that he possessed exceptional body agility. He was arrested between Mercatale and Cortona by an Austrian column and almost certainly the Angioloni must have been a ring of the Trafila. The Trafila consisted of a capillary chain of secret informers, widespread in the territory of the Papal State, who helped Garibaldi in all his travels. It was thanks to the Trafila that, in Sant'Angelo in Vado, he was informed that an Austrian column was climbing up the Metauro Valley to attack it and he avoided it by heading to San Marino for the Foglia Valley. It was the 28th of July and Cipriano Angioloni was shot on the 30th.

 

 

 

 

 

A few days later, Anita died in the pine forest of Ravenna, the fugitive hero managed to avoid the tight grip of the Austrian patrols who hunted him closely thanks to the efficiency of the Trafila.

The ninety young people who followed Garibaldi belonged mainly to the artisan class (blacksmiths, carpenters, tailors), to that of merchants, landowners, clerks and culture. The same social distribution, moreover, is found in the enterprise of the Thousand (see document below). The events of June 20 in Perugia in 1859 lacked 800 young people who had left volunteers for the north where the Second War of Independence was being fought. They belonged to the same classes. In the third, in Condino and Bezzecca, the same script was repeated and among the Perugians there were also Annibale Brugnoli and Zefferino Faina along with 23 people from Umbria.
Reflection on these data leads us to clarify the statement of some authoritative historians who define the Resistance of 1943-45 a second Risorgimento, with the difference that it registered a mass participation, while the first was only the work of an elite. This judgment is based on a hasty transposition of the concept of "mass" in the two events. If on the sociological level the mass is made up of all the people who form a community, on the political level the conscious, motivated and participating element in the life of civil society is the "people". Towards the middle of the nineteenth century, the mass of peasants did not enjoy any rights and was a stranger and passive spectator to small and large events that did not affect them in the least. The working class was still in the early stage of its birth. A hundred years later, things had changed and the people of the fields and factories also participated in political life, were organized into parties and had given themselves their own trade unions. It is logical that those social classes that were not present in the struggles of the Risorgimento also militated in the ranks of the Resistance. On the basis of these considerations, the lashes that Garibaldi himself in his Memoirs trims at the absence of the peasant people among his ranks appear ungenerous.
The Umbertidese community offered its best youth energies to the national Risorgimento and to Garibaldi in particular (its "mass" - many were just over sixteen years old -) belonging to those classes (craftsmen, landowners, traders, clerks, men of culture) who they had the privilege of participation and awareness. The town of Umbertide in that period had 900 inhabitants and 90 Garibaldi fighters represent 10% of the total. A high figure if we consider that it was not the result of a conscription precept, but of a voluntary choice.
The end of the struggles of the Risorgimento left a profound mark on the Umbertidese community. The fraternal union, experienced in the battlefields, had a sequel in the Society of Veterans of the Patrie Battaglie, a numerous and lively Association founded on October 17, 1882. Article 2 of the Statute established its purpose, which was that of "mutual assistance, moral and physical education and any other means that conspire to the well-being of the institution and the liberal ideas it advocates ”. It was not an ante litteram party, but a supportive, open and progressive group that opposed the conservatism and nostalgia of the local agrarian nobility. The Board of Directors was made up, in fact, of leading liberal and republican elements such as:

Giuseppe Utili, president
Filippo Natali, vice president
Aristide Reggiani, councilor
Eugenio Vincenti, councilor
Lorenzo Reali, councilor
Alpinolo Sbarra, councilor
Angelo Rometti, cashier
Leopoldo Grilli, secretary.

In particular, the secretary Leopoldo Grilli, to whom a street has been dedicated, was the tireless soul of Umbertide's republican movement. He was born on April 24, 1848 in Sigillo and Mazzini's ideals soon fascinated him, so much so that in 1866 and 1867 he joined the Garibaldian ranks in Condino and Mentana. It does not appear in the tombstone of the nineties since at that time he was a citizen of Sigillo. In fact, he moved to Umbertide in 1870 and on 21 June 1874 he married Francesca Natali. He was the first left angry in the city and was persecuted, accused and forced to flee in exile to Switzerland. Acquitted by the accusations he returned, and was elected for numerous legislatures in the City Council. These were hard times for the republicans who were in every way opposed by the liberal and monarchical majority who occupied the palaces of power and in the specific case of Umbertide the Town Hall. One episode is very telling. In 1871, Filippo Natali, then an official of the Municipality of Magione, wrote to the mayor asking that the ashes of Luigi Vibi be brought back to the Cemetery of Umbertide, from that of Santo Spirito, called dei Centocinque, where they were. An endless discussion arose within the Council, as always happens when you don't want to do things. To bring back the ashes of Vibi alone would have been an offense to Giovan Battista Igi and Giuseppe Mastriforti, it was said, who had fallen for the same ideals. So instead of extending the treatment to the other two as well, it was deemed wiser to do nothing for anyone. After many speeches, an anonymous and dull stone was placed in the memory of Vibi in the city cemetery where it was said that the Garibaldi captain, "of proven political faith", had fallen fighting for the independence of Italy. The word "republican" does not appear nor the fact that he fought in defense of a republic born in place of the Papal State. On the other hand, such a thing was about to happen in Perugia in 1887 when the Republican Committee decided to erect the monument to Giuseppe Garibaldi in the eightieth anniversary of his birth. There were those who argued that the monuments had to be two, one to Perugino and the other to Baldo degli Ubaldi, the jurist, because the fame of Garibaldi who knows if it would have lasted.
On May 16, 1892 Leopoldo Grilli was proposed as mayor, but he did not accept the position in order not to take an oath of loyalty to the King. He was "acting" mayor only for a few months and handed over the baton received by Francesco Andreani to Francesco Mavarelli. He ran a bar in via Cibo and died on 22 September 1912.
In this context it is also necessary to remember the figure of Giuseppe Bertanzi. He was born in Umbertide on 6 March 1837 to Paolo and Angelica Vibi. He inherited the homeland love from his maternal uncle, that Luigi Vibi of whom we have spoken. An enlightened and committed liberal, his life was not directly intertwined with Garibaldi's events, but was equally a prestigious and leading protagonist in the events of the Perugian Risorgimento. On the walls of the Frontone, on 20 June 1859, he was also there, in the 3rd company commanded by Raffaele Omicini and on that sad evening he was among the last to flee the city through the Bulagaio Gate with Francesco Guardabassi and Zefferino Faina. A year later, he will be the guide to the Piedmontese troops of Fanti, who had passed through Umbertide, along the steep slopes that climbed to Perugia, on 14 September 1860. He will become a close collaborator of Pepoli and secretary of Filippo Gualterio, first prefect of Perugia. He was a direct witness, and in part also a protagonist, considering his role, in the close diplomatic battle between Cavour, Pepoli and Gualterio on the one hand, and Napoleon III (who defended the interests of the Pope) on the other so that Orvieto and Viterbo could enter part of Italy and did not remain in the patrimony of San Pietro, now reduced to only Lazio. As is known, Orvieto, the city of Gualterio, was assigned to Italy, while Viterbo remained with Rome.
When Italy was made, the boys from Umbertide, many of whom were not yet twenty years old, flocked to the roll call.

 

Historical research by Amedeo Massetti

Sources:

 

- Historical archive - Umbrian Risorgimento (1796 - 1870) founded by Giuseppe prof. Mazzatinti and directed by Giustiniano dott. Degli Azzi - Angelo dott. Fani / Year II - Issue II,  Perugia - Cooperative Typographical Union - 1906

 

- Umbertide in the XIX century by Renato Codovini and Roberto Sciurpa - Municipality of Umbertide - Ed. Gesp - 2001

 

- Calendar of Umbertide 2009 - Ed. Municipality of Umbertide - 2009

 

Lapide Vibi.jpg
The plaque in the atrium of the Town Hall in memory
by Luigi Vibi, Giuseppe Mastriforti and Giovanni Battista Igi
Busto Garibaldi.jpg

Busts of Garibaldi and the King on the facade of the Town Hall

In 1884 the Municipality wanted to remember the most significant figures of the Italian Risorgimento: Vittorio Emanuele II and Giuseppe Garibaldi. He ordered two marble busts to be placed on the outside of the Bourbon palace on the sides of the entrance door, from the Perugian sculptor Raffaele Angeletti for the price of three hundred lire each. At the end of the year the work was ready, but the portraits were placed where they are currently only on the morning of February 22, 1885, at 10 am, as can be seen from the particular notice printed by the Tiberina printer and sent to the personalities of the town.

Facciata Comune.JPG
Lapide Garibaldini.JPG
Lapide Berlicche.JPG
The plaque commemorating the killing of Cipriano Angioloni (Berlicche) in via Secoli,
in the area where the shooting took place  by the Austrians

The town hall of Umbertide. The busts of Garibaldi

and of King Vittorio Emanuele II are placed on both sides

of the main entrance door.

The plaque in Piazza Matteotti that
he remembers the 90 volunteers from Umbria
The Garibaldini of Umbertide
 

Commemoration of the Bicentenary of the birth of Giuseppe Garibaldi

Museum of Santa Croce - June 21, 2007

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

by Roberto Sciurpa

 

No man in Italy has achieved greater popularity and ignited deep passions like Giuseppe Garibaldi. His fame spread to the most remote places and among the simplest people, when the means of information were scarce and illiteracy reached high peaks.

Edoardo Ferravilla, Milanese playwright, between the end of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century, created a characteristic character of the Milanese theater, called Tecoppa, rogue, swindler, lover of the strangest expedients and almost always in court for legal disputes. When he found himself in a bad way in the face of the disputes of his misdeeds, he hurled at the accusers an insinuation that became famous: "He said ill about Garibaldi!", And the parties were overturned; Tecoppa from being accused became accuser believed by the judges. Beyond the theatrical fiction, the episode testifies to the halo of legend and the sacredness that surrounded the hero of the two worlds.

Yet, at least around 1848, Garibaldi had not done great things in Italy. He had left Nice in 1834 with a death sentence on his head for having participated in the riots in Savoy. The year before he had met Mazzini in Marseille and had joined the Giovine Italia under the pseudonym of Borel. After various vicissitudes, at the end of 1835 and the beginning of 1836, he fled into exile in South America, between Brazil and Uruguay, and remained there for twelve years, performing memorable deeds for the redemption of those peoples from the dictatorship. He returned to Nice on 23 June 1848 accompanied by a fame that the clandestine papers of the republicans had opportunely magnified.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The first War of Independence was underway when he returned to Italy and the death sentence still hung over his head, never revoked. In spite of this, he was received by King Charles Albert on July 5, an evident sign that the work of unofficial diplomacy had been in motion for some time to welcome the legendary warrior and put him in contact with the government that had sentenced him to death. He only got cold and distrustful attention from the Piedmontese ministers, aware that Garibaldi was a useful man, but to be used with caution and to be kept on the sidelines of important scenarios, not only for his republican sympathies, which are very wavering after all, but for his scarce docility to any form of rules and orders. In America he had performed heroic deeds, but in Italy it was not a question of conducting guerrilla actions, as in the Rio Grande and Uruguay, but of collaborating with other units of the regular army, within military plans and strategies decided by others. . For this reason, the minister of war of Carlo Alberto did not want him among his own and in order to have him available but far away, he proposed that he go to the rescue of the people of Venice in revolt. Garibaldi immediately showed his lack of docility to orders, and refused the minister's suggestion by accepting the request for help from the Milanese provisional government, chaired by Casati. He arrived in Milan on July 14, 1848, just ten days before the defeat of Custoza and the ominous conclusion of the first War of Independence.

After the period of understandable confusion after Custoza's disappointment, Garibaldi decided to go to Venice to help the patriots who still defended the precarious Republic. He was in Ravenna to embark with his volunteers, when the news reached him of the killing of Pellegrino Rossi, the flight of Pope Pius IX to Gaeta and the proclamation of the Roman Republic. His plans changed and he decided to run to the aid of the Roman Republic which represented the brightest symbol of the Italian patriotic struggle. He did not send delegations, but went personally to Rome to decide what to do.

On this occasion he passed through the Fratta and spent the night in the Vibi house, leaving in memory his telescope, jealously guarded by the great-grandchildren of the family. A reasonable reconstruction of the events allows us to establish that Garibaldi on November 15 (the day of the assassination of Pellegrino Rossi) was in Ravenna waiting to embark for Venice. He decided, as we have mentioned, to go to Rome "to make contact with the Minister of War so that he would put an end, once and for all, to our wandering existence" (Memoirs) and will quarter his volunteers in Cesena. In the second half of November, therefore, Garibaldi set off for Rome and went down to Fratta through the Verghereto pass. In fact, other presences in Foligno and Cascia date back to the same period. He arrived in Rome on 12 December, as evidenced by a leaflet circulated by the Roman republicans the next day.

The enthralling charm of his fame, especially among the republican and liberal ranks, also spread to Fratta and many young people followed him with passion and attachment for about twenty years, from the first to the last hour, from the defense of republican Rome in 1849 to the attempt to overthrow the papal government in Mentana in 1867. It should be remembered that with Captain Luigi Vibi, on the walls of Rome there were twenty-six other young people from Fratta. It should also be remembered that another 28 Umbertidesi volunteers came in 1859 in the Second War of Independence and another 23 in 1866 in Condino and Bezzecca. In Mentana, in 1867, there were 31 boys from Umbertide.

Three of them never returned: on 21 June 1849, Captain Luigi Vibi was shot to death at Porta di San Pancrazio on the walls of Rome; on July 16, 1866, corporal Giuseppe Mastriforti fell in Condino in the province of Trento; on November 3, 1867, Giovanni Battista Igi sacrificed himself in Mentana.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The plaque that we honored a little while ago in Piazza Matteotti shows the names of the 90 generous volunteers who contributed to the achievement of National Unity. They are listed in alphabetical order, without distinction of the campaigns carried out. Some of them were present in more than one Garibaldi campaign.

Among those who lost their lives in those events, Berlicche must be remembered. Cipriano Angioloni was from Città di Castello, but was shot by the Austrians in the clearing we visited a little while ago. They called him Berlicche, like one of the devils, because he was a refined and creative blasphemer who had followed Garibaldi until two days earlier. Giuseppe Bertanzi, in a letter written to his friend Giuseppe Amizie from Città di Castello, tells us that he possessed exceptional body agility. He was arrested between Mercatale and Cortona by an Austrian column and almost certainly the Angioloni must have been a ring of the Trafila. The Trafila consisted of a capillary chain of secret informers, widespread in the territory of the Papal State, who helped Garibaldi in all his travels. It was thanks to the Trafila that in Sant'Angelo in Vado, he was informed that an Austrian column was going up through the Metauro Valley to attack it and he avoided it by heading to San Marino for the Foglia Valley. It was July 28th and Cipriano Angioloni was shot on the 30th. A few days later, Anita died in the Ravenna pine forest, the fugitive hero managed to avoid the grip of the Austrian patrols who hunted him closely thanks to the efficiency of the Trafila.

The ninety young people who followed Garibaldi belonged mainly to the artisan class (blacksmiths, carpenters, tailors), to that of merchants, landowners, clerks and culture. The same social distribution, moreover, is found in the enterprise of the Thousand (see document below). The events of June 20 in 1859 in Perugia, whose anniversary was celebrated yesterday, were missing 800 young people who had volunteered for the north where the Second War of Independence was fought. They belonged to the same classes. In the third, in Condino and Bezzecca, the same script was repeated and among the Perugians there were also Annibale Brugnoli and Zefferino Faina along with 23 people from Umbria.

The reflection on these data leads us to clarify the statement of some authoritative historians who define the Resistance of 1943-45 a second Risorgimento, with the difference that it registered a mass participation, while the first was only the work of an elite. This judgment is based on a hasty transposition of the concept of "mass" in the two events. If on the sociological level the mass is made up of all the people who form a community, on the political level the conscious, motivated and participating element in the life of civil society is the "people". Towards the middle of the nineteenth century, the mass of peasants did not enjoy any rights and was a stranger and passive spectator to small and large events that did not affect them in the least. The working class was still in the early stage of its birth. A hundred years later, things had changed and the people of the fields and factories also participated in political life, were organized into parties and had given themselves their own trade unions. It is logical that those social classes that were not present in the struggles of the Risorgimento also militated in the ranks of the Resistance. On the basis of these considerations, the lashes that Garibaldi himself in his Memoirs trims at the absence of the peasant people among his ranks appear ungenerous.

The Umbertidese community offered its best youth energies to the national Risorgimento and to Garibaldi in particular (its "mass" - many were just over sixteen -) belonging to those classes (craftsmen, landowners, traders, clerks, men of culture) who they had the privilege of participation and awareness. The town of Umbertide in that period had 900 inhabitants and 90 Garibaldi fighters represent 10% of the total. A high figure if we consider that it was not the result of a conscription precept, but of a voluntary choice.

The end of the struggles of the Risorgimento left a profound mark on the Umbertidese community. The fraternal union experienced in the battlefields had a sequel in the Society of Veterans of the Patrie Battaglie , a numerous and lively Association founded on October 17, 1882. Article 2 of the Statute established its purpose which was that of "mutual assistance, moral and physical education and any other means that combine with the well-being of the institution and the liberal ideas it advocates ". It was not an ante litteram party, but a supportive, open and progressive group that opposed the conservatism and nostalgia of the local agrarian nobility. The Board of Directors was made up, in fact, of leading liberal and republican elements such as:

 

- Giuseppe Utili, president

- Filippo Natali, vice president

- Aristide Reggiani, councilor

- Eugenio Vincenti, councilor

- Lorenzo Reali, councilor

- Alpinolo Sbarra, councilor

- Angelo Rometti, cashier

- Leopoldo Grilli, secretary.

 

In particular, the secretary Leopoldo Grilli , to whom the street we visited was dedicated, was the tireless soul of Umbertide's republican movement. He was born on April 24, 1848 in Sigillo and Mazzini's ideals soon fascinated him, so much so that in 1866 and 1867 he joined the Garibaldian ranks in Condino and Mentana. It does not appear in the tombstone of the nineties since at that time he was a citizen of Sigillo. In fact, he moved to Umbertide in 1870 and on 21 June 1874 he married Francesca Natali. He was the first left angry in the city and was persecuted, accused and forced to flee in exile to Switzerland. Acquitted by the accusations he returned to us and was elected for numerous legislatures in the City Council. These were hard times for the republicans who were in every way opposed by the liberal and monarchical majority who occupied the palaces of power and in the specific case of Umbertide the Town Hall. One episode is very telling. In 1871, Filippo Natali, then an official of the Municipality of Magione, wrote to the mayor asking that the ashes of Luigi Vibi be brought back to the Cemetery of Umbertide, from that of Santo Spirito, called dei Centocinque, where they were. An endless discussion arose within the Council, as always happens when you don't want to do things. To bring back the ashes of Vibi alone would have been an offense to Giovan Battista Igi and Giuseppe Mastriforti, it was said, who had fallen for the same ideals. So instead of extending the treatment to the other two as well, it was deemed wiser to do nothing for anyone. After many speeches, an anonymous and dull stone was placed in the memory of Vibi in the city cemetery where it was said that the Garibaldi captain, "of proven political faith", had fallen fighting for the independence of Italy. The word "republican" does not appear nor the fact that he fought in defense of a republic born in place of the Papal State. On the other hand, such a thing was about to happen in Perugia in 1887 when the Republican Committee decided to erect the monument to Giuseppe Garibaldi in the eightieth anniversary of his birth. There were those who argued that the monuments had to be two, one to Perugino and the other to Baldo degli Ubaldi, the jurist, because the fame of Garibaldi who knows if it would have lasted.

On May 16, 1892 Leopoldo Grilli was proposed as mayor, but he did not accept the position in order not to take an oath of loyalty to the King. He was "acting" mayor only for a few months and handed over the baton received by Francesco Andreani to Francesco Mavarelli. He ran a bar in via Cibo and died on 22 September 1912.

In this context, I believe it is only right to recall the figure of Giuseppe Bertanzi. He was born in Umbertide on 6 March 1837 to Paolo and Angelica Vibi. He inherited the homeland love from his maternal uncle, that Luigi Vibi of whom we have spoken. An enlightened and committed liberal, his life was not directly intertwined with Garibaldi's events, but was equally a prestigious and leading protagonist in the events of the Perugian Risorgimento. On the walls of the Frontone, on 20 June 1859, he too was in the 3rd company commanded by Raffaele Omicini and on that sad evening he was among the last to flee the city through the Bulagaio Gate with Francesco Guardabassi and Zefferino Faina.

A year later, it will be he who will guide the Piedmontese troops of Fanti, who had passed through Umbertide, along the steep slopes that climbed to Perugia, on 14 September 1860. He will become a close collaborator of Pepoli and secretary of Filippo Gualterio, first prefect of Perugia. He was a direct witness, and in part also a protagonist, considering his role, in the close diplomatic battle between Cavour, Pepoli and Gualterio on the one hand, and Napoleon III (who defended the interests of the Pope) on the other so that Orvieto and Viterbo could enter part of Italy and did not remain in the patrimony of San Pietro, now reduced to only Lazio. As is known, Orvieto, the city of Gualterio, was assigned to Italy, while Viterbo remained with Rome.

When Italy was made, the boys from Umbertide, many of whom were not yet twenty years old, flocked to the roll call.

 

 

DOCUMENTS

 

1848-49: FIRST WAR OF INDEPENDENCE AND DEFENSE OF THE ROMAN REPUBLIC

 

YOUNG UMBERTIDESI PRESENT

 

1. Agostini Giuseppe, captain in Venice and Rome

2. Giovanni Banelli

3. Baldacci Luigi

4. Benedetti Antonio

5. Benedetti Settimio

6. Domenico Bettoni

7. Baracchini Domenico, (Garibaldi legion)

8. Cencini Filippo, (Garibaldi legion)

9. Cristoferi Angelo Antonio

10. Giovanni Domenico porters

11. Faticoni Alessandro, (Roselli legion)

12. Igi Domenico

13. Igi John the Baptist

14. Iotti Antonio

15. Iotti Carlo

16. Iotti Domenico

17. Livi Gabriele

18. Mastriforti Domenico

19. Mercanti Francesco, (Zambianchi Column)

20. Pasquali Antonio

21. Romitelli Fioravante

22. Luigi Romitelli

23. Romitelli Tito, (in 1831 he had participated in the riots in Rimini)

24. Ruined Giuseppe

25. Tonanni Settimio

26. Vibi Luigi, (Captain, died in Rome), graduate landowner

 

1859: SECOND WAR OF INDEPENDENCE - YOUNG UMBERTIDESI PRESENT

1. Baldacci Domenico

2. Barcaroli Domenico, (20th Reg.)

3. Bastianelli Mauro

4. Giovanni Boldrini

5. Baracchini Giovanni, (20th Reg.

6. Serafino baby carrots

7. Censi Amerigo

8. Ciangottini Bartolomeo, (20th Reg.

9. Cristoferi Angelo Antonio

10. Faticoni Alessandro

11. Garognoli Giovanni Battista, (20th Regiment)

12. Giappichelli Genesio, (corporal of the genius), blacksmith born July 11, 1841

13. Igi Domenico

14. Igi John the Baptist

15. Igi Giuseppe was Antonio

16. Igi Septimius

17. Manganelli Agostino

18. Mencarelli Gervasio

19. Natali Filippo, (corporal 38th Reg.to)

20. Polidori Luigi, (44th Reg.to)

21. Enrico Porrini

22. Reggiani Aristide, (major corporal of the 38th Reg.to), merchant landowner born in 1840

23. Santini Giuseppe

24. Santini Leopoldo

25. Giovanni Valdambrini

26. Valeri Luigi

27. Vespucci Americo, craftsman

28. Vibi Gervasio

 

1866: THIRD WAR OF INDEPENDENCE - YOUNG UMBERTIDESI PRESENT

1. Barattini Mariano

2. Barcaroli Domenico

3. Benedetti Odoardo

4. Bertanzi Giuseppe

5. Alessandro Burelli

6. Caneschi Tommaso

7. Censi Americo

8. Ciangottini Bartolomeo

9. Nazarene Chrysostomes

10. Valerian Friars

11. Gili Silvio

12. Igi Giuseppe by Giovanni Battista, (corporal)

13. Maccarelli Maccario, (prisoner in Condino)

14. Magi Spinetti Lavinio

15. Masciarri Paolo

16. Mastriforti Giuseppe, (corporal who died in Condino)

17. Mastriforti Ruggero

18. Morelli Giovanni Battista

19. Polidori Luigi

20. Santini Giuseppe

21. Santini Pio

22. Luigi texts

23. Giovanni Valdambrini

 

1867: MENTANA - YOUNG UMBERTIDESI PRESENT

 

1. Barattini Mariano

2. Barcaroli Domenico, (prisoner)

3. Bartoccini Sante

4. Giacomo Bellezzi

5. Benedetti Odoardo born on 13 July 1847

6. Alessandro Burelli, (second lieutenant pharmacist)

7. Caneschi Pericles

8. Caneschi Tommaso

9. Checconi Luigi, (prisoner)

10. Ciangottini Michelangelo

11. Fornaci Salvatore, blacksmith born on 22 June 1850

12. Fratini Giuseppe

13. Giappichelli Genesio

14. Gili Silvio

15. Igi Giovanni Battista (died in Mentana)

16. Dairy Retinal

17. Maccarelli Maccario, carpenter born on 7 April 1847

18. Maccarelli Torello, tailor born on May 15, 1850

19. Martinelli Massimo, musician born on 12 March 1846

20. Improve John

21. Morelli Giovanni Battista

22. Polidori Luigi

23. Porrini Domenico, a municipal donzello born on 11 August 1848

24. Rometti Septimius

25. Giuseppe ruined

26. Santini Pio (lieutenant)

27. Luigi texts

28. Tonanni Agostino

29. Julian thrones

30. Giovanni Valdambrini

31. Vespucci Americo

 

FROM THE PREVIOUS LISTS THE NAMES OF THE VOLUNTEERS WHO HAVE PARTICIPATED IN MORE THAN ONE CAMPAIGN WITH THE RELEVANT INDICATION ARE EXTRACTED

 

PARTICIPANTS IN THREE CAMPAIGNS

 

1. Barcaroli Domenico 1859 1866 1867

2. Igi Giovanni Battista 1849 1859 1867 died in Mentana

3. Polidori Luigi 1859 1866 1867

4. Valdambrini Giovanni 1859 1866 1867

 

PARTICIPANTS IN TWO CAMPAIGNS

 

1. Burelli Alessandro 1866 1867

2. Caneschi Pericle 1866 1867

3. Censi Amerigo 1859 1866

4. Ciangottini Bartolomeo 1859 1866

5. Cristoferi Angelo Antonio 1849 1859

6. Faticoni Alessandro 1849 1859

7 Giappichelli Genesio 1859 1867

8. Gili Silvio 1866 1867

9. Maccarelli Maccario 1866 1867

10. Morelli Giovanni Battista 1866 1867

11. Santini Giuseppe 1859 1866

12. Santini Pio 1866 1867

13. Texts Louis 1866 1867

14. Vespucci Amerigo 1859 1867

 

Source: Historical Archive of the Risorgimento, vol. II - State Archives of Perugia - Location: Umbria Gen. 2-2 pp. 132 et seq.

 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE THOUSAND

 

REGION OF BELONGING

 

- 443 from Lombardy

- 160 Venetians

- 157 Ligurians

- 80 Tuscans

- 45 Sicilians

- 38 Emilians

- 30 Piedmontese

- 20 Friulians

- 20 Calabrians

- 19 bells

- 14 from Trentino

- 11 marchigiani

- 10 from Lazio

- 5 from Puglia

- 4 Umbrians

- 3 Nice

- 3 Sardinians

- the Lucanian

- 1 South Tyrolean

- the Savoyan

- 1 Abruzzese

- 8 born abroad

- 4 Hungarians

- 2 Swiss

- 1 course

 

TOTAL 1091. The 79.15% are Po Valley and only 10.6% belong to the other regions

 

SOCIAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE THOUSAND

 

- 253 intellectuals

- 321 artisans or traders

- 203 owners

- 203 military (of which 15 will become generals)

- 20 workers

- 11 laborers

- 9 farmers

- 48 illiterate people

- 10 Israelites

- 8 former priests

- 1 woman (Rosalia Montmasson, Crispi's girlfriend)

 

Source: Gilberto Oneto: L'Iperitaliano, Il Cerchio Editoriale Initiatives, Rimini 2006, pp. 104 and 105.

Sources:

"A FREE MAN - Roberto Sciurpa, a passionate civil commitment" - by

Federico Sciurpa - Petruzzi publisher, Città di Castello, June 2012

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GARIBALDI'S STAY IN FRATTA

 

In November 1848 he was a guest of the Vibi family in the palace near

the bridge over the Tiber destroyed by the air raid on 25 April 1944

 

by Roberto Sciurpa

(From "Umbertide Cronache n.1 2002)















 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Judging by the numerous tombstones that recall the places where Garibaldi slept, one could believe that the hero of the two worlds was more a priest of Morpheus than a man of action devoured by the passion for a united and independent Italy.

In reality he did not have barracks where to quarter his soldiers, much less a stable house to spend the brief moments of pause between one military undertaking and another in the whirlwind of the events of the Italian Risorgimento. He slept wherever he happened to be during transfers from one location to another of the peninsula and when the demanding strategic did not claim his presence among the soldiers, he happened to be hosted by families who, like him, had unitary ideals at heart and sometimes even the republican ones. Then, as often happens, when the hero's exploits took over popularity and history, everyone went to great lengths to point out the traces of his presence.

One of these nights, Garibaldi also spent in our land, guest of the Vibi Lords, a historic, wealthy and authoritative family in the Fratta of the time, where you could breathe a very pure republican air. One of his exponents, the valiant captain Luigi, will fall in defense of the Roman Republic on 21 June 1849, alongside Garibaldi. The Vibis owned an imposing palace that presided over the left bank of the Tiber and controlled the main access gates to the castle on the south side: the one on the Tiber bridge closest to the town, the S. Francesco gate and the door that led to the street. Straight (today via Cibo). The allied bombing of 1944 destroyed the building; only the area where it stood today bears witness to its memory (Largo Vibi).

 

 

 

Giancarlo Vibi is the jealous custodian of family memories that are handed down from generation to generation with understandable pride and composed reserve, so much so that the event has never been given ostentatious publicity. He says that a large walnut bed decorated with fine workmanship columns was made available to the General, in the center of a large room furnished with sober elegance. The guest knew that he was among trusted friends who shared his ideals and it is likely, indeed almost certain, that on this occasion he had the opportunity to meet Luigi who a few months later would fall under his orders, as a subordinate officer, on the walls of Rome. . The next day, before leaving, as a thank you and a pledge of friendship, he left his telescope covered in mahogany and brass to his family, which is still kept today with loving care by Giancarlo.

II Vibi is unable to specify the date of the event and we just have to retrace it

Garibaldi's movements at that time, as he himself reconstructs them in his own

Memories, to identify, with reasonable approximation, at least the period of his

passage through the castle of Fratta.

Based on this research criterion, we know for sure that November 15, 1848, when

with the assassination of Pellegrino Rossi the republican revolt, Garibaldi, began in Rome

he was in Ravenna, at the head of a handful of volunteers waiting to embark for

Venice to give a hand to the resistance of the lagoon city. The facts of Rome

they brought about a change of programs since the defense of the nascent republic

Roman was a priority and emblematic political event that was supported by

all costs, without saying that when it came to causing displeasure to the pope, Garibaldi

he did not get prayed twice. He therefore decided to move to Cesena, where I will lodge

his soldiers and then to go to Rome to make contact with the new political authorities

and make yourself available to them.

But alongside these reasons another human and understandable, candidly, peeps out

confessed in the Memoirs, linked to the desire and the need to find a point of

stable reference and perhaps also a definitive "classification" for its staff

military, always short of economic resources. He states verbatim that he was going

in Rome "to make contact with the Minister of War to put an end, once and for all, to our wandering existence".

In this circumstance Garibaldi, accompanied by a very small escort, crossed the valley of the Savio and then that of the Tiber (the route of the current E 45) passing through the land of Fratta. The overnight stay in the Vibi house can therefore be placed between the end of November and the beginning of December 1848. At the beginning of January 1849, in fact, having concluded the agreements with the provisional government of Rome, Garibaldi met in Foligno with his volunteers, who had traveled the same way as him, and at their head he went to Macerata.

 

Photo:

Historical photographic archive of

Municipality of Umbertide

 

Sources:

Article on "Umbertide Cronache"

- n.1 2002 - Page 46

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