Historical characters 
from the nineteenth century to antiquity

In this subsection we propose the biographies of some characters who played a role in the history of the city in the period from the nineteenth century to antiquity.

 

 

 

 

 

Pietro Burelli

Military engineer in the service of the Serenissima

 

curated by Fabio Mariotti

Pietro Burelli - Galleria dei personaggi

On December 18, 1960, 59 years ago, the municipal administration named a street after Pietro Burelli. Who was this character considered worthy of the title of a street and how many people from Umberto today know its history?

 

The historical research of Col. Pilota dott. Giuseppe Cozzari at the historical archive of the city of Venice, with the precious collaboration of the historian Renato Codovini for the transcription of the texts. In addition to some letters that testify the process for hiring our ancestor as a military engineer expert in defensive fortifications, Cozzari also found an original manuscript that illustrates in detail, even with precise images, the functioning of a new weapon from war, the "Trabucco", conceived by Burelli.

 

 

Pietro Burelli, son of Tommaso "distinguished scholar", was born in Fratta in 1584. From a very young age he showed great talent and a marked aptitude for mathematical sciences. The historian Antonio Guerini, in his work " History of the land of Fratta, now Umbertide - 1883 " says that " civil and military architecture was preferably his main passion in order to open up a more splendid field on the streets of honor, he gave himself totally to a career in arms ". For this he went to Spain, then engaged in a bloody war with the Turks, where he reached the rank of captain. He became particularly adept at building countryside fortifications that resisted the assault of cavalry and infantry. For this reason, when he returned to Italy, he put himself at the service of the Most Serene Venetian Republic, recommended to Doge Niccolò Donatuti by the General Superintendent in Terra Ferma Benedetto Moro, with a very rich commission of 800 scudi a year. In this on activity in the Veneto region he undertook the restoration and restructuring of the bastions of Palmanova and the grandiose project of the fortress of Verona, a city in which, surprised by a serious illness, he died in 1642 at the age of 58.

 

Article published in the December 2019 issue of "Local Information ".

Sources: Fabio Mariotti.  The documentation was found in the historical archive of the Municipality of Venice by Dr. Giuseppe Cozzari and transcribed from the vernacular by the historian Renato Codovini.

 

DOMENICO BRUNI

Great opera singer

 

curated by Fabio Mariotti

 
Domenico Bruni.JPEG

He was born in Fratta on February 28, 1758, to Pietro, the master mason, and Francesca Brischi. Already at an early age he showed a good disposition to singing. Domenico's father belonged to the Compagnia della S. Croce. It is therefore probable that the young man learned the first rudiments of music in the school of the Company, starting from 1764. Bruni's debut at Fratta, with a soprano voice, is in 1772, at the age of 14.

At the age of 15, according to a cruel custom of that time, often adopted by poor families who had children particularly gifted in singing, Domenico was emasculated. This made him one of the most important emasculated singers of the time. His first performance in a large theater, the Alibert in Rome, dates back to 1776. From 1780 to 1787 he sang in some of the most important Italian theaters and his fame began to cross national borders. In 1787 he was called to the court of Catherine II of Russia, where he arrived after a long and adventurous journey and where he remained until 1790.

The most important years of his career go from 1791 to 1796. In this period he was also called to London where he performed in 1793.

The debut as a professional singer in his city is dated 8 September 1795, during the Feast of the Madonna della Reggia, probably in the Collegiate Church.

After his career, Bruni returned in 1797 to Fratta where, in consideration of the fame he had achieved and despite the opposition of the rich local notables who did not want to accept him among themselves, he was elected Prior of the Confraternity of San Bernardino. This important task was entrusted to him again from 1805 to 1807, while in 1804 and from 1816 to 1818 he was appointed Depositary (today we would say cashier) of the same Confraternity. Relations with the Compagnia della SS Concezione date back to 1795. In 1814 he was elected Prior, while in 1812 and from 1819 to 1821, the year of his death, he was appointed Depositary.

Bruni's deep ties with the local Confraternities are also demonstrated by the will, where he asked for his body to be buried in the church of San Bernardino and left an annual legacy of 10 scudi to the Confraternity.

Domenico Bruni's name is also inextricably linked to the Theater. On 4 August 1808, in fact, he was appointed president of the Accademia dei Riuniti. During that meeting the municipality was asked the possibility of using the entire building where the theater room was located in order to create a real theater, what is still called Teatro dei Riuniti, whose works were completed in 1814. .

 

Sources:

 

- Nicola Lucarelli: "Domenico Bruni (1758 - 1821) - Biography of an emasculated singer"

- Ed. Municipality of Umbertide, 1992

 

- Text published in the "Calendar of Umbertide 1998" - Ed. Municipality of Umbertide, 1998

Copertina libro Domenico Bruni.jpg
 

ZELMIRINA  AGNOLUCCI

Popular opera singer

 

 

SINGING FOR THE Czar OF RUSSIA NICHOLAS II

 

by Amedeo Massetti

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

She bore the name of her grandmother, Zelmirina, her maternal grandmother Zelmira Savelli (1) , wife of Gabriele Santini, whose homonymous grandson would become internationally renowned conductor (2) . The mother, Maria Santini, fifth of the seven children of Gabriele and Zelmira, born in 1848 (3) , had married Francesco Agnolucci, 1851, great young violinist director, from 1871 to 1875, of the school

municipal music of Umbertide, teacher of many children. He will also conduct, highly esteemed, many philharmonic and musical bands in various cities of Italy.

Zelmirina was born in Umbertide in 1879. She had breathed the notes since she was a child listening to the sweet melodies played by her father in their large country house. She had studied singing, graduating as a soprano with Pietro Mascagni at the “G. Rossini ”in Pesaro (4) , where he went twice a month in a horse-drawn carriage.

The first performance in the theater in Umbertide

We find it for the first time on the evening of April 4, 1898 at the “Teatro dei Signori Riuniti” in a show of some importance that deserved the honors of the chronicles (5). Everything was organized "for the benefit of the sightless singer Emilia Giannuzzi", passing through Umbertide, who performed in front of a large and passionate audience. The theater, in fact, despite the rain for many days and the weather discouraging the evening outings, was crowded, "the boxes overflowed with representatives of the gentle sex". This in spite of a humid Lent evening, a Monday that began Holy Week. But Giannuzzi was a good soprano and they sang next to her

the Umbertidesi Zelmirina Agnolucci, occasionally in the role of contralto, “very admired”, and Giulio Santini, known and appreciated baritone (6). A great local musician, Massimo Martinelli, director of the Municipal Concert, always present in important musical events, accompanied them on the piano. Zelmirina had performed several times at the Morlacchi theater in Perugia as a dramatic soprano, starting a demanding career that had already given her various satisfactions (7). He then began his artistic career by singing in companies of national level. His Mimì in the "Bohème" at the prestigious "Coccia" of Novara (8) during the 1899 Carnival (9) is memorable and the interpretation, in the same theater, of the "Devil's Trill" by Stanislao Falchi (10), in the splendid stage costumes.

 

The tour in Russia

But the first major tour of his life was the one he undertook at the beginning of the twentieth century:

he would take her to St. Petersburg, to sing for Tsar Nicholas II. The girl, twenty-one,

she left with her father Francesco Agnolucci, after signing a contract with

the impresario for exhibitions in various cities on the long way to the capital of the Russian empire.

We find her in this adventurous artistic journey, in March 1900, at the Grand Theater of Vilna (11)

where he sings in the "Cavalleria Rusticana" together with Luisa De Sirianna, Carolina Zawner, Federico

Percopo (tenor), Giuseppe Pimazzoni and Ignazio Pompa (12). The next stop was the Theater

Riga National (13), in May 1900, together with Ernesto Pettinari and again with the baritone

Ignazio Pompa (14).

Great success at the Imperial Theater in St. Petersburg

But the most important performance was at the Imperial Theater in St. Petersburg, where Tsar Nicholas II sat in the audience (15). It was a great success and the young soprano impressed with her skill and beauty Wassili Elisiewch Lithewsky, noble councilor of the Tsar (galavà), governor of Vitebsk, now a city of Belarus. During Zelmira's stay in St. Petersburg there was an intense acquaintance between the two which resulted in the Russian noble's request for marriage. The girl's father agreed, and had to pay the entrepreneur a large sum to compensate for the commitments that Zelmira would have to fulfill upon his return.

 

 

 

 

 

Marriage with the Russian nobleman Wassili E. Lithewsky

The wedding was celebrated in Vitebsk after not a few difficulties: Wassili even spent a few days locked up in a military fortress for not having asked the Tsar for permission to marry, as was prescribed for officers; but the impetus to marry the young soprano had made him forget every procedure of his role. Wassili was born in Ekaterinodar (16), on the Black Sea, in 1860 and was almost twenty years older than the girl, a charismatic and charming forty-year-old. The couple settled in the city ruled by their husband and began a happy life together.

Two children were born soon: Boris in 1901 and Elena in 1904. Wassili was so in love that he built a theater in their sumptuous palace in Vitebsk where his wife put on shows in which she performed in the singing roles. A large adjoining room housed a specimen of every musical instrument existing at the time: incomparable, precious furnishings, desired by Wassili, by his love for Zelmira, by his artistic sensitivity (17).

Francesco Agnolucci stayed for some time in Russia close to his daughter, then returned to Italy. He died in 1917 in his house in Rio, on the border between the towns of Montone and Umbertide, at the age of 66 (18).

 

The return to Italy with her husband and two children

In 1914 Zelmirina left with Wassili for Italy to introduce her mother Maria and the Agnolucci family to her husband and children. The Lithewskys stayed for a few months but Wassili, after the First World War broke out, being an official of the Tsar, had to return to Russia; his wife and children remained at home; Boris and Elena completed their studies in Italy. "Stay here" - Wassili had told them - "when the war ends I will come and pick you up".

 

After the Russian Revolution, Wassili was forced into hiding

But in October 1917, in the middle of the world conflict, the Bolshevik revolution broke out in Russia. All classes of the nobility were legally abolished. Wassili had to hide to escape arrest and was forced to live in hiding for a long time, aided by his own farmers. Her relatives had been killed with summary executions, without trial, including the two sisters Barbara and Alessandra, schoolmates of Elena of Montenegro, who later became the wife of Vittorio Emanuele III of Savoy.

Only nine years later, in November 1926, "General Lithewsky" managed to get in touch with the Italian foreign ministry through official diplomatic channels. Through the consulate in Odessa, in present day Ukraine, he obtained a passport with relative visa; for a moment the darkness seemed to clear but the operation was not successful and the former Tsar's officer had to go back into hiding. In 1929 he managed to send his family a photo of him, addressed with affection to "dear Lolina", his daughter Elena. In Italy, in 1918, due to the great "Spanish flu" which killed 20 million people all over the world, the eldest son Boris had died when he was only seventeen years old. The loss of her son had upset Zelmirina.

Wassili Lithewsky spent very hard times in Russia: for almost ten years his relatives in Italy had not been able to receive news. Amid enormous difficulties, he went clandestinely in various parts of the territory, fleeing into the deserts of Central Asia, supported only by the desire to see his owners again.

In the early thirties of the twentieth century, the climate calmed a little, the family research began: the son-in-law, Dr. Carlo Alberto Angelini, husband of Elena, knew well and contacted the Italian ambassador in Moscow, Bernardo Attolico; he also asked for the intervention of the Red Cross. Even the engineer Adolfo Ghisalberti, grandson of Maria Santini (19) got involved in the research.

Finally he was able to find him in the Gobi desert, in Mongolia, and to organize his return: in the summer of 1932 Wassili was able to leave for Italy. Carlo Alberto Angelini went to pick him up at the port of Genoa. His physique was very weak: several times it was necessary to support him during the transfers of the trip.

 

After countless ups and downs, the return to the family

When the Tsar's adviser arrived in Umbertide, on his way to the country house in Rio, hollow face, white lace, almond-shaped eyes, many people noticed the rich dress of a Russian nobleman which gave his tall and majestic figure an aura of charm and mystery. .

Zelmirina, despite her joy, suffered a great shock upon the arrival of her husband whom she had had to leave a long time ago. The second child, Elena, who saw him again after 15 years, stopped breastfeeding her daughter Viola due to the trauma (20).

Wassili finally settled in the large house of the Agnolucci family. An avid smoker, he slept with the light of a candle on the bedside table because when he woke up he had an urgent need to light a cigarette. But the elderly aristocrat will not be able to enjoy the warmth of the newly found family for long because he died of pulmonary emphysema only three months later (21).

 

Zelmirina's death on 5 July 1944

Zelmirina, bent by the adversities of life, suffering in her youth (22) from a viral form of lethargic encephalitis (23), fell ill with Parkinson's disease and spent the last few years in suffering. She was lovingly assisted in her illness by her son-in-law, Carlo Alberto Angelini, doctor, husband of his daughter Elena. He died on 5 July 1944, the day of Umbertide's Liberation (24), invoking his beloved son Boris, at the "Palazzo della Tramontana", the current villa owned by Cozzari along the road leading to Migianella (25), then owned by Agnolucci .

 

30th September 2013

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sources:

Historical research by Amedeo Massetti

 

Published in March 2014 on n.52 of "Altotiberine Pages" by the Historical Association of the Upper Tiber Valley.

 

Reduced text published in the "Calendar of Umbertide 2015" - Ed. Municipality of Umbertide 2015

 

 

Notes to the text:

1 Zelmira, born in Umbertide in 1820, belonged to the Savelli family, living in via Stella; she was the sister of Giuseppe Savelli, mayor of Umbertide several times from 1863 to 1880, and of Don Flaviano, canon and archpriest of the Collegiate Church of S. Maria della Reggia. Zelmira Savelli will die in 1875.

2 Gabriele Santini was born on January 20, 1886; the father was Pio Santini, the mother Carmela Nolaschi. He studied at the “F. Morlacchi ”cello and piano and later moved to the GB Martini Conservatory of Bologna where he completed his composition studies with G. Minguzzi and P. Micci. He began his career as a conductor as early as 1904 and devoted himself almost exclusively to the operatic genre. After a first period at the Teatro Costanzi in Rome (now the Opera Theater), he was hired by various theaters in Latin America. He stayed for eight seasons at the Colon Theater in Buenos Aires and later at the Municipal Theater in Rio de Janeiro, at the Lyric Opera in Chicago and at the Manhattan Theater in New York. From 1925 to 1929 he was called to the Alla Scala theater in Milan as assistant to maestro Arturo Toscanini. He came back

then at the Rome Opera where he remained permanently until 1933 and from 1944 to 1947 he held the position of director here

artistic. In 1951 he directed the company of S. Carlo di Napoli in the tour in Paris, for the celebrations of Verdi's fiftieth anniversary. He directed several seasons at the Teatro alla Scala in Milan in 1946 and from 1960 to 1964, the year of his death (From N. LUCARELLI, Gabriele Santini, illustrious from Umbertide, in "Umbertide Cronache", bimonthly periodical of the Municipality of Umbertide, n. 1- 2002, p. 42).

3 A. MASSETTI, Two centuries on the march, Umbertide and the band, Città di Castello, Petruzzi, 2008, p. 139.

4 Testimony of the granddaughter Fiore Angelini.

5 The Liberal Union, April 5, 1998, p. 2.

6 In the second half of the 19th century the baritone voice of Giulio Santini came to the attention of the lyrical mode. In 1872 he was hired as first baritone at the Fermo theater. From here he moved to Sansepolcro and in 1874 he sang at the Teatro Nuovo in Florence as the first absolute baritone, where he collected sensational successes. During his long stay in this city, he also performed in the Bellincioni Hall, in via delle Belle Donne. At the concert, performed on January 30, 1875, Santini participated incognito, perhaps for reasons imposed by his relationship with the new theater. Leaving Florence, he performed for a long time first in Siena, then in Perugia, where he performed 12 performances of Donizetti's “La Favorita”. In February 1879, Santini sang in Verdi's “Luisa Miller” at the Città di Castello theater. The news about him

they end with 1880, the year in which he was hired by the Arezzo Theater. Throughout his career he received certificates of esteem and profound appreciation for his professional performances from the entrepreneurs. (R. CODOVINI - R. SCIURPA, Umbertide in the 19th century, Città di Castello, GESP, 2001, p. 307).

7 Testimony of the granddaughter Fiore Angelini.

8 The “Coccia” theater in Novara, one of the major traditional Italian theaters, was inaugurated on 21 January 1888 with the opera “Gli Ugonotti” by Giacomo Meyarbeer, directed by Arturo Tscanini. It is named after Carlo Coccia, chapel master of the Chapter of the Novara cathedral.

9 Documents now in the possession of the niece Viola Angelini.

10 Stanislao Falchi, born in Terni on January 29, 1851, was a pupil of C. Maggi and S. Meluzzi, who started him on the study of composition. In order to achieve a more in-depth preparation, he moved to Rome, where musical studies experienced a lively revival in the climate of cultural renewal in the years following the unification of Italy. In 1877 the musical high school of S. Cecilia was inaugurated, divided into numerous courses: Falchi received the post of teacher of choral singing and in 1882 of normal singing, appointments that gave him particular prestige. He will then be director of choral singing in various schools in Rome from 1883, crowning a splendid didactic career; he will have the chair of counterpoint, fugue and composition in 1890 in the conservatory of S. Cecilia (Biographical Dictionary of the Italians Treccani).

11 Today's Vilnius, then a Russian city, now the state of Lithuania.

12 The baritone Ignazio Pompa, born in Rome in 1860, studied both in Milan and in his city. Success was not long in coming

come. Over thirty, he entered various theater companies, from the Castellano Company to Labruna, Granzini, Dazig and sang in important European theaters, from Paris to Le Havre, from Ostend to Liege, to Poltava. He also sang in Smyrna, Athens, Constantinople, Cairo, Alexandria in Egypt. His presence in Russian and Ukrainian theaters, from Smolensk, where he married in 1899, to Wilnius, from St. Petersburg to Minsk, Kursk, Jekaterinoslav, Theodosia, Molitopoli, Kerck, and other Russian and Ukrainian cities, was successfully noticed. He died in London in 1909 (www.museoparigino.org).

13 Riga, then a Russian city, is now the capital of the Baltic state of Latvia.

14 Ibid.

15 The current Mariinsky Theater, in St. Petersburg. It owes its name to Princess Maria Aleksandrovna and in the past it had, in Soviet times, the name of Kirov Theater, (in honor of Sergej Kirov) and National Academy of Opera and Ballet and, in Tsarist times, Imperial Theater of San Petersburg.

16 The city, since December 1920, has been renamed Krasnodar.

17 Testimony of the niece Viola Angelini.

18 He is buried in the Savelli chapel, in the left hemicycle of the Umbertide cemetery. On his gravestone is the following

critta: He dedicated his beautiful art, his illicit industrious life to his wife and his children who with infinite reverent love venerate the tearful memory.

19 Testimony of his daughter Paola Ghisalberti.

20 Testimony of the niece Viola Angelini.

21 Wassili Lithwsky is also buried in the Umbertide cemetery, in the Savelli chapel.

22 The husband had disappeared in the chaos of the Russian revolution and they had not even been able to write to each other anymore.

23 The father of ladies Fiore and Viola, Carlo Alberto Angelini, a doctor, also had contact with Queen Elena who

had promoted and funded studies on this disease.

24 On 5 July 1944 Umberttde was liberated by soldiers of the British 8th Army.

25 The villa to the left of those who climb towards Migianella, which is accessed along a path bordered by maritime pines. In the 1930s it belonged to the Agnolucci family.

 

 

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The singer with her son Boris
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Tsar Nicholas II
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Zelmirina with her husband Wassili
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Singer  with some of the clothes used on stage

FILIPPO ALBERTI

Literate and poet

 

curated by Fabio Mariotti

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

He was born on March 26, 1548 in Fratta, to Luca Antonio Alberti and Ippolita Petrogalli. He spent his childhood and adolescence in severe studies and in his early twenties he was elected "coadjutor" of the chancellor of the municipality of Perugia.

He soon acquired a reputation as a talented poet. His rhymes had, while he was still alive, two different editions and many of them saw the light in valuable collections of other important and illustrious writers of the time, including the valuable "nine sonnets", written by Our for the "Conversion of Saint Mary Magdalene".

He wrote various highly praised works: a book of poems entitled "Rime di Filippo Alberti" printed in Rome and Venice; a beautiful song over the cicada; a tragedy entitled "Cestio Macedonico" whose protagonist was a certain Cestio citizen of Perugia, who having fought with the Romans in the

war of Macedonians and in that having been reported for generous actions, he deserved the nickname of Macedonico.

Not all of his works were published and many went missing - although we have news and titles - following his long illness and death.

Filippo Alberti was held in high regard by personalities of the time such as Alfonso d'Este, Duke of Ferrara, Cardinals Bonifacio Bevilacqua and Domenico Pinelli and the Marquis Ascanio della Cornia. It was held in honor by men of letters such as the illustrious humanist Marco Antonio Bonciari, Scipione Tolomei, Cesare Crispolti senior, Giovan Battista Lauri, Cesare Caporali, Claudio Contuli and Cesare Alessi. But the main boast for Alberti was the friendship that Torquato Tasso professed to him; friendship based on the esteem that the great poet had for the man of letters from Fratta. Alberti tells us about his acquaintance with Tasso in Ferrara, cultivated through an affectionate correspondence with our Filippo, to whom he also dedicated a sonnet, and did not disdain to ask him for advice on the "Gerusalemme Liberata" and, if he had any, to follow them.

Alberti was also a good prose writer (there are praises of illustrious men, still unpublished, preserved in the Augusta library in Perugia). Some of these works were not completed, others remained unpublished both for the envy of the powerful of the time, as confirmed by Lauri and Oldoino, and for his poor health.

The literary merits and the love he brought to Fratta and Perugia lead us to believe that it would have been very interesting to have a volume of his lost "Historical Memories of Perugia", written by him when the Roman Carlo Conti was governor of the city of the Grifo. , he who under Pope Clement VIII "was tempted to make the Church of Perugia archipiscopal". His studies did not remove Alberti from public offices and he, who in 1573 had been elected "Coadjutor" of the chancellor of the municipality of Perugia, was called to take over the direction of the prioral chancellery, an office to which distinguished men were always assigned for prudence and by doctrine.

Friends and admirers had to mourn his death when he was not yet old. He was 64 when he retired to live in Fratta and ended his days there, on 12 September 1612. He is buried in the church of San Domenico in Perugia.

The street where his house was located, in the historic center, now bears the name of "via Alberti".

 

Some poems by Filippo Alberti

It turns out more not to love

I said, you were my good

And my life, Orsella

More than the sun wanders, and beautiful.

Hor I unsubscribe, and 'the song

I address the blame, a l'ire

I loved you, I hate you just as much.

And out of troubles, and pains

Behold, I too am mine

To God, perfidious, to God.

 

Treats that the women of Perugia, past one                                                                     certain age, they should wear black

Ouch, foolish is he who believes

What a woman in a black dress

May it seem less beautiful, and less haughty.

the nigga the beautiful does not take away,

And Law cake is that

That only others grant

Color, which always announces or deaths, or pains,

It thunders, and the sky flashes when it is darkest,

Negra serpe has more tosco.

 

Omen of the beauty of a girl

Green apple six

Vague girl, and with beautiful outward eyes

Sol virginelle gratitude and still breathe;

But Cupid is already sharpening the guilty darts,

Already in the man the face has removed,

To turn it on then in your beautiful face.

 

 

Sources:

Historical calendar of Umbertide 2002 - Ed. Municipality of Umbertide - 2002

Arcangelo Chelli - “The illustrious men of Umbertide” - Ed. Tipografia Tiberina - 1888

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alberti 1.tif
Alberti 2.png
Alberti 3.JPG
Via Alberti
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ERNESTO FREGUGLIA

 

The story of an adopted Umbertidese painter

 

 

by Amedeo Massetti

 
Ernesto Freguglia (1875). The Foro Boario, today Piazza del Mercato

The large oil painting with oxen, which stands out on the wall of the mayor's office, was painted in 1875 by Ernesto Freguglia. Known painter at that time, but unknown to Umbertide today.

Yet Freguglia lived in our city for twenty-five years, moving there from Rome in 1874. He lived first in via Cibo, then in via Petrogalli which then skirted the village of San Giovanni and finally in via Cavour, at number 64, where the last aged 74 died. day of 1899. He is buried in our cemetery.

The good artist was born in Sabbionello di Copparo, in the municipality of Ferrara, on December 20, 1825. A pupil of the Ferrarese painter Guseppe Tamarozzi, he had studied at the school of drawing and figure in the university of his city. He had therefore been in Florence where we find him in 1853 among the various copyists of the Uffizi (here he reproduced a “landscape by Jean Baptiste Fierce de Roven”). He then moved to Rome, in 1856, entering the studio of the painter and restorer Alessandro Mantovani, also from Ferrara (some of his valuable works are in the Quirinal Palace). In the 1860s, Freguglia was still active in Rome where he participated in the complete renovation of the decorations, between 1863 and 1867, of the church of Santa Lucia del Gonfalone in via dei Banchi Vecchi, together with Salvatore Rotani, under the direction by the well-known Roman painter Cesare Mariani. Between 1870 and 1876, he collaborated with Alessandro Mantovani in the decoration of the Nuova Loggia Pia in the Vatican, giving "proof of uncommon skill in following Raphaelesque concepts". In 1876 he donated one of his paintings to the municipality of Ferrara. He exhibited in this city in 1875, 1877 and 1899. A couple of his suggestive romantic landscapes, in harmony with the canons of the Roman landscape school, are in the Scutellari collection of the Este city.

Freguglia is a painter of a good level and his works denote profound technical knowledge and a refined taste that goes far beyond the representations of the manner of authors of his period. It is affected by the contemporaneity with the Macchiaioli movement even if, while lingering in  fresh play of lights and colors, he does not neglect to use precise brushstrokes, creating almost photographic representations.

The painting on the wall of the mayor's office, to which we have mentioned, "The cattle market in Fratta", in addition to offering us an extraordinary document of nineteenth-century life - the animated day of the market - provides architectural details of the ancient city that have now disappeared or transformed. In fact, the views of the bridge over the Palace and the open space in front of the Rocca are different, not yet leveled with backfill (a partial restoration of the original conditions was carried out with the recent works in the Park of the Reggia and Piazza del Mercato). Likewise, the Guardabassi post hotel (to the right of the Collegiate Church) no longer exists and was demolished to widen the entrance road to the Piazza. And finally, the Mavarelli palace has a different structure, now also raised in the wing towards the center of the town.

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Ernesto Freguglia (1874). The Tiber in the "Mulinaccio" area

The other painting we know of, belonging to the Scagnetti collection, in which Ernesto Freguglia depicts a different glimpse of Umbertide is also of great documentary value. The canvas, dated 1874, has the usual delicate line and the richness of details typical of the painter and represents the view from the west side of the castle of Fratta. In the center of the painting, on the edge of the walls, you can see the base of the defense tower which collapsed in the flood of the Tiber in 1610. On the left side you can see some architectural details that have now disappeared. At the bottom right you can see the artificial canal that carried the water of the Carpina, after passing through the Mulinello and the Fornace, to activate the "Mulinaccio" (recently swept away by the flood) under the walls. The area still has this name. Finally, washerwomen, fishermen and people bathing in crystal clear water are represented.

Ernesto Freguglia, an Emilian painter who became Umbertide, loved our city and chose it to live there for a quarter of a century, until his death. From the careful glimpses in which he depicts it, from the care he takes to the most typical details, a relationship of warm familiarity transpires. Bre 2019 of

 

The article was published in the November issue of "Local Information"

Sources:

Historical archive research by Amedeo Massetti

Registry card of Ernesto Freguglia
at the Municipality of Umbertide
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Cartellino 2.jpg
 

GIUSEPPE SAVELLI

The Mayor of the passage from Fratta to  Umbertide

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

by Amedeo Massetti

 

The ceramic bust of Giuseppe Savelli was placed in the town council hall in 1894, when the room was renovated with the installation of new wooden stalls made by all the carpenters of Umbertide. It was placed on a wooden base overhanging the wall at a height of two meters, to the right of the bench of the Giunta, flanked, on the left, by the bust of Antonio Guerrini.

The old furniture in the council chamber, used for 90 years, was replaced by the current one in 1984, when the town hall was renovated. The bust was restored free of charge in 2011 by the Umbertidese artist Antonello Renzini and was relocated in the room adjacent to the City Council.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Doctor Giuseppe Savelli was born in Umbertide on May 16, 1824. Owner, he lived in via Stella at n. 11. He also had a house in Via Diritta (now Via Cibo at no. 13), a house in Rome, and a country residence in Rio on the border between the municipalities of Umbertide and Montone where his studio is still located. its library.

From 1861 he held the position of municipal councilor. From 1863 he will be appointed Mayor. He was mayor of Umbertide several times from 1863 to 1880.

Doctor Savelli was a patriot; during the revolt of the Umbrian populations to the papal government in 1859, he was appointed governor of the provisional administration of Fratta, with the approval of the government of Perugia.

In 1861, as a municipal councilor, he worked with extraordinary commitment for the reconstitution of the musical band, of which he was a member and later very active and authoritative president. He wrote a memorable letter in this regard.

Dr. Giuseppe Savelli was elected Mayor in 1863 (he was therefore the first citizen who ferried Fratta to Umbertide) and will hold this office until May 18, 1868. Then for the whole of 1871 and 1872 he was again mayor. In 1873, for a period, he still appears as mayor.

In his capacity as head of the administration, he worked with sensitivity and foresight to give the municipality, which emerged from the inadequacy of the papal administration, a modern and efficient structure. In 1872 he approved the first public hygiene regulation and the first urban police regulation, which deeply affected the socio-sanitary situation of the time and remain milestones for their relevance.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Giuseppe Savelli died in Umbertide on 6 July 1886. He is buried in the last chapel of the hemicycle

left of the Umbertide cemetery, where there are also the tombs of the Santini family

(his wife was Rosa Santini, daughter of Giuseppe, and his sister Zemira Savelli had married

Gabriele Santini, grandfather of the internationally renowned conductor of the same name).

His brother, Don Flaviano Savelli, was canon and archpriest of the Collegiate.

Giuseppe Savelli is the author of a manuscript history (unfortunately partially destroyed) of the

Savelli family which also includes a pope, Honorius III, who approved the Rule of St. Francis.

Sources:

Historical research by Amedeo Massetti

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1975. Establishment of the City Council. In
high, on the right of the Giunta, the bust
by Giuseppe Savelli
Mayor Savelli's signature on the poster
announcing the name change
A. Massetti at the presentation of an edition
of the historical calendar of Umbertide
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The family crest on the house  
in Rio

ANTONIO GUERRINI

 

Canon of the Collegiate, professor of rhetoric and local historian

 

 

 

 

curated by Fabio Mariotti

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Antonio Guerrini had the education and upbringing of youth very much at heart, for which he dedicated his entire life.

He was born in Fratta in 1779 by Giovan Battista Guerrini and Anna Maria Cassoni. From his earliest years he showed the beautiful qualities of his soul. His first teachers were two former Spanish Jesuits, Father Sebastiano Re and Father Gabriele Villalunga. Of a good and honest nature, to better benefit his fellow citizens he embraced the ecclesiastical life, in which he distinguished himself for truly evangelical knowledge and charity.

At the age of fifteen he was designated canon of the Collegiate church, while completing his theological studies in the seminary of Gubbio. At the age of twenty-five he was appointed professor of rhetoric in the public schools of our country. He taught for more than forty years until the last days of his life, with tireless zeal and with great love.

Twice he was called to Perugia, first to exercise the office of rector and moderator of studies in the "Piano Collegio", then to teach philosophy; but both times he refused, thus giving very clear proof of his predilection for his native land.

Antonio Guerrini worked constantly to improve teaching methods in the schools entrusted to him. He compiled a geography accompanied by historical information, designing and building a large terrestrial globe to facilitate its teaching. He also made a large map of Europe, also with indications of the main historical facts.

He cooperated in the formation of the town band, in the erection of a theater (what later became the "Teatro dei Riuniti") and in the establishment of a society of dramatic declamation for the benefit of the poor in need.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The cover of the book on the history of Fratta and Umbertide

(Anastatic copy on the original of 1883 made by the "Gruppo

Local Editorial "by Digital Editor Umbertide - September 2009)

 

 

He wrote a much praised work, a "Theory of Oratory Art and Versification of Tuscany" of which, a summary, was included in the Parisian Journal of the year 1810 and which earned the author a mention by the famous Degerando who, writing in about Mr. Count Giovanni Spada, Deputy Prefect, revealed to him his desire that such a teaching method be adopted by all the universities of the Empire. He also left many Latin and Italian poems.

He was very involved in the research of homeland memories, of which he left a copious collection.

His major work "History of the Land of Fratta now Umbertide from its origins until the year 1845" was completed by the nephew Genesio Perugini printed at the Tipografia Tiberina and published at the expense of the Municipality of Umbertide in 1883.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Antonio Guerrini died on January 21, 1845, at the age of sixty-five. He was buried in the church of Santa Maria della Reggia (Collegiata) where, to perpetuate his memory, the Town Hall placed a marble plaque between the orchestra and the main west door which reads as follows:

"Don Antonio Guerrini for virtue of science, the town hall highly admired - XXI Gennaro MDCCCXXXXV".

 

The municipal administration dedicated a street to him on January 22, 1880.

 

Sources:

- "The illustrious men of Umbertide" by A. Chelli - Umbertide, Tipografia Tiberina - 1888

- "The man in toponymy" by B. Porrozzi - Ed. Pro-loco - 1992

- Biography of prof. Antonio Mezzanotte - Bartelli Typography, Perugia 1845.

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Interior of the Collegiate where Don Antonio Guerrini was buried. Below, on the left, the plaque commemorating him.
 

ANNIBALE MARIOTTI

 

Distinguished doctor and scholar of the second half of the 18th century

 

 

 

 

 

curated by Fabio Mariotti

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Annibale Mariotti was born on 13 September 1738 in Perugia, where his father Prospero, professor of medicine and botany at the local university, had recently moved from Fratta with his already pregnant wife Maddalena Eleonori.

He completed his literary and scientific studies in Perugia and at just sixteen he obtained a doctorate in medicine and philosophy. Shortly afterwards he went to Rome to study physics and mathematics under the guidance of great tutors such as Iaquier and Le-Seur, without neglecting to perfect himself in medical science with the lessons of Saliceti and Gianneschi and in chemistry with Voyole.

Returning to Perugia in 1757, at the age of only nineteen, he was appointed professor of medicine but the desire to enrich his cultural background led him to leave Perugia again.

It was in Bologna, where he took advantage of the classical schools of Beccari, Molinelli and Monte; in Padua where he enriched his already rich knowledge by making friends with the very learned Quirini, Morgagni and other renowned professors, then also in Pisa, admired everywhere for his great erudition. He was offered professorships from Pisa, Pavia and from the same studio in Padua, which he refused for the sake of his native place.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                     1930s. The post office in piazza Umberto I (now piazza Matteotti)                              The entrance on via Mariotti

 

Such was by now his fame as a man with great knowledge that he often asked his vote in the most profound medical disputes from the most renowned Colleges of Italy and Count Roberti, writing to Bianconi, said: "Enough to inspire Perugia to remember me that the highly literate Mariotti is its citizen! "

He had relations with the most brilliant geniuses of his time and the most renowned Academies were honored to have him as a partner, such as the Etruscans of Cortona, the Arcadi Augusti, the Leopoldini of Germany and others.

He was even called by the Dresden Court as his doctor, but the call of his native land was too strong for him so he returned to Perugia where, in 1760, he was given again the chair of medicine to which, in 1768, was added that of botany, which had already belonged to her deceased parent.

Annibale Mariotti lived in difficult times but, among the honors and humiliations that he had to bear, he always managed to keep the goodness and kindness of his generous soul.

Proclaimed, on February 5, 1798, the French republic in Perugia, Hannibal was one of the fifteen who formed the provisional government and had the honor, with Dr. Gian Angelo Cocchi, to represent the city in Rome, at the banning of the constitution of the Roman Republic .

On his return to Perugia he was elected "consular prefect" of the Trasimeno Department.

He used authority and knowledge for the benefit of his fellow citizens, working for the release of some nobles imprisoned by the government of the republic and taken to Ancona.

After the fall of the Roman republic, eighteen months after its proclamation, it was the object of slanderous accusations by its enemies. For this he was arrested by the Austro-Arezzo soldiers and taken to Arezzo as a criminal.

After some time, the accusations found to be false, he was released, but the harshness of his imprisonment soon contributed to reducing him to death. Death came on June 10, 1801, after a serious illness of six months. Perugia reserved solemn honors for him and the funeral oration was read by Dr. Luigi Santi, his loyal disciple. He was buried in the church of S. Angelo in Porta Eburnea, where an epigraph recalls his virtues and his knowledge.

Annibale Mariotti wrote about 60 works, including the "History of Perugian literature" and "Perugian pictorial letters" printed in 1788. He also left a manuscript of historical memories of all the places under the ancient dominion of Perugia.

 

Umbertide, after 1863, dedicated to him the street (formerly vicolo del Pomo) that connects today's Piazza Matteotti with Piazza XXV Aprile.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The old photos are from the historical photographic archive of the Municipality of Umbertide

 

Sources:

- "History of the land of Fratta now Umbertide" by A. Guerrini (completed by G. Perugini) - Umbertide, Tipografia Tiberina - 1883

- "The illustrious men of Umbertide" by A. Chelli - Umbertide, Tipografia Tiberina - 1888

- "The man in toponymy" by B. Porrozzi - Ed. Pro-loco - 1992

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Via Mariotti today from piazza XXV aprile
The plaque of the illustrious personage
 
 
PIETRO GIACOMO PETROGALLI

Man of arms of the second half of the sixteenth century famous for his courage

 

 

 

 

 

curated by Fabio Mariotti    

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pietro Giacomo Petrogalli was born in 1554, from one of the best families in the country. From a young age he showed great courage and firmness of character.

One day, while he was having fun fishing on the Tiber, just below the castle of Montalto, he was insulted by the Perugian Sforza degli Alessandri who, not happy with this, also had him beaten with a stick by one of his agents.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Peter could not bear the insult and swore to take his revenge.

Alessandri often came to Fratta, bringing with him an escort of warriors. Pietro not being able to suffer so much insolence, after the insult he received, presented himself in front of him and fired a pistol shot on his chest, leaving him dead on the ground. Then, armed with a hatchet, he made his way through the men of arms and managed to get to safety. However, he did not escape the penalty of the ban to which he was condemned, and in April 1580 he was forced to leave his native land.

At first he took refuge in France and took up service in the militias of that country. He immediately distinguished himself for many and beautiful actions of value, for which he received the admiration of the soldiers and had the rank of lieutenant colonel.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

From France he returned to Italy, placing himself at the service of the Grand Duke of Tuscany Ferdinand I and left with the Italian troops who went to Hungary to fight with the emperor, against the Turks. Also on this occasion he proved himself worthy of his name by fighting hard and, after the capture of Chiavarino in which he covered himself with glory, he was appointed captain of a large Italian company, on October 15, 1594.

He was also once again in Hungary paid by the Church, in the expedition commanded by Francesco of the Marquises Del Monte, remaining there until the end of the war, in which he sustained many wounds.

It was then that, ill in health and very weak from a lot of blood shed, he expressed the desire to return to breathe the native air and the pope, with a special pardon of July 26, 1596, not only allowed him to return to his country , but he called him back from the ban and condoned all punishment, although he had not obtained peace from the Alessandri family.

After some time, having recovered in health, he returned to Tuscany and was by the Grand Duke Ferdinando

appointed lieutenant of the Pistoia fortress, then sergeant major of the Livorno garrison and then castellan of the same city.

In 1607 he participated in the capture of the city of Bona in Barberia with the rank of battle sergeant.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

When Ferdinand I died in 1609, he was succeeded in the government by Cosimo II who, having also learned of his expertise and loyalty, on 15 May 1612 appointed him Governor in Valdelsa and sergeant major of all the Tuscan infantry, succeeding the knight Francesco Tucci , also giving it the rich income of Poggio Imperiale.

He also held many other important offices including that of Castellano and Governor of the Fortress of San Miniato.

In 1622 he returned to Fratta again, staying there for a short time, however, because Princess Maddalena, regent of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, called him to assist Cardinal De 'Medici on the occasion of the Conclave for the election of the new Pope after the death of Gregory XV. Subsequently in 1628 Ferdinando II, Cosimo's son and successor, called him back to the court to occupy the high office of Councilor of State. And that year was fatal to him because one day, while he was leaving the council, he was seized by an aneurysm for which he died at the age of 74.

 

In ancient times via Petrogalli (formerly via San Giovanni) was located in the so-called Borgo San Giovanni destroyed in the terrible bombing of 25 April 1944. For this reason the city council on 18 December 1960 approved the assignment to Petrogalli of a new road, the crossroad that gives via XX September ends up in via Andreani.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sources:

- "History of the land of Fratta now Umbertide" by A. Guerrini (completed by G. Perugini) - Umbertide, Tipografia Tiberina - 1883

- "The illustrious men of Umbertide" by A. Chelli - Umbertide, Tipografia Tiberina - 1888

- "The man in toponymy" by B. Porrozzi - Ed. Pro-loco - 1992

FRANCESCO MAVARELLI

 

Mayor of Umbertide from 1892 to 1898 and author

some valuable texts on the history of Fratta

 

curated by Fabio Mariotti

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Francesco Mavarelli was born in Cagli on January 3, 1870 to Vincenzo and Angela Calai. He spent his childhood in the Marche town where his parents had some properties, but the most considerable group of his assets was in Umbertide and consisted of the magnificent palace in via Stella and numerous farms scattered in the surrounding countryside. His first friendships were born along the Via Flaminia, between Cagli and Fossombrone, just twenty kilometers away from each other and divided by the Furlo massif. Here he established sincere and lasting relationships with the most prominent families of the place such as the Vernarecci, the Chiavarelli and others.

He spent the years of childhood and adolescence with his brother Giuseppe born five years before him, but then, on June 14, 1891, the two separated because Giuseppe decided to marry Luigia Menghini and went to live on his own.

We do not know the exact date on which Francesco left Cagli to settle in Umbertide. The personal data sheet only notes that he moved there "as a child". With certainty in Umbertide he completed the cycle of elementary and middle school, and then entered the Collegio della Quercia in Florence where he completed the course of classical studies and graduated in law. He did not practice his profession, absorbed as he was by the administration of his assets and by numerous other commitments. During the holidays he often went to his native places to visit old friends and gladly stopped in Fossombrone at the Chiavarelli family where Marina, who was born on 7 July 1875 and had seen a child, was getting a beautiful girl.

A brilliant and open young man, supported by robust and thoughtful studies, he also faced the political and administrative commitment with great success. In the partial municipal elections of 26 July 1891 he was elected councilor with 110 votes out of 171 voters, while in the general elections of 27 November 1892 and 23 June 1895 he was the first of those elected, respectively with 455 out of 490 voters and 650 votes out of 695 voters. He held the office of mayor of Umbertide for six years, from 4 December 1892 to 3 December 1898.

He was municipal councilor, provincial councilor of the district and president of the Congregation of Charity. A life full of work and responsibility, considering that the young Mavarelli was in his early twenties.

To this must be added the intense historical and literary commitment on some aspects of city life conducted with scrupulous balance and profound competence, confirming a school education approached with seriousness and conviction.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

"Historical news and praise on the Company of disciplines of Santa Maria Nuova and Santa Croce in the Land of Fratta", was his first work published in 1899 and dedicated to his wife. Professor Augusto Vernarecci, Fossombrone's friend, informs us that the work was examined and praised by a competent and severe judge such as Giuseppe Mazzatinti.

The second historical commitment was that of "The Art of Blacksmiths in the Land of Fratta", published posthumously in 1901. The family members entrusted its publication to Vernarecci who accompanied the work with a touching premise that we report in its entirety.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

On 31 August 1896 he married Marina, the girl from Fossombrone to whom he was now tied by a deep affection. The wedding was celebrated in the Marche city and on the same day the young landowner moved to the building in via Stella di Umbertide, where Francesco performed the functions of mayor. Then came the children. The first was Zenaide (23 October 1898) and the second Angiola Maria (28 November 1899). The third, Francesca, will be born on 12 December 1900 when her father had been gone for five months.

Suddenly, that Friday evening of 20 July 1900, a gunshot froze the affections, aspirations and projects: Francesco had killed himself. The dramatic event preceded the regicide of Monza by nine days and this was enough to unleash the strangest assumptions about the motive for the gesture, the result of a Homeric epic fantasy. The mirrored customs and transparency of behavior of Francesco did not offer space for gossipy inferences. Thus, the whispers that circulated from alley to alley inside the town and that every day were colored more and more with lively colors and curious details, no less wanted the unfortunate young man to be linked to a Perugian anarchist group within the which his name would have been extracted to assassinate Umberto I. The task would not have been pleasing to the lottery and hence the fatal choice of suicide.

Evidently, those who spread the fable of the failed regicide knew very little about anarchy, contrary to any form of institutional collaboration and any bond, including that of marriage, which represented a limitation to the sacred freedom of the individual. The religion of anarchy was identified only with revolutionary methodology. Francesco, on the other hand, was a man of the institutions, within which he had carried out important functions such as that of mayor and provincial councilor; he had also been awarded the title of knight and his whole life showed respect for the rules and the practice of civil coexistence. No, the story of an alleged anarchist membership definitely does not hold up, if only because in a few days the alternate to kill a king is not found, but it offers us some food for thought.

The elegance of mind of the last Mavarelli; the profound culture that allowed him to dig into the historical past of his people by choosing the two typical strands of existence: religion (historical news and Laudi) and work (The art of blacksmiths); the high prestige gained in the exercise of political offices made him a different character from many of his peers. The hard college life based on tolerance and respect for others, passionate and assimilated study did not belong to youthful parentheses to be thrown into oblivion, but had become a way of life. In a difficult and conflictual period in which many agrarians responded to the spread of the socialist party and the peasant leagues with the expulsion of the colonists from their farms, the sensitivity and convictions of the agrarian Mavarelli were certainly oriented towards different attitudes that did not coincide with the crude and provocative authoritarianism of the law of the strongest practiced by some of his friends.

On the other hand, for many men of the extreme left, the revolution was just around the corner and Gaetano Bresci's threat to the carabinieri who translated him to the prison of Santo Stefano and silenced him because he asked too many questions is symptomatic: " guys like you who should never talk! But soon the revolution will sweep you all away ”. According to the most accredited opinion in the agrarian world, these people had to be answered with the harshest methods, there was no middle ground.

Mavarelli lived intensely the political unease of his time at the crossroads between reaction and revolution, which was, moreover, the unease and embarrassment of all European culture between the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth century, in search of new models of expression and vigorous sources of inspiration and which in very generic terms took the name of Decadentism.

This different way of being and feeling that harbored in the soul of Francis, for the popular imagination that has always loved shortcuts, extremisms and baseless analogies, was enough to make him an anarchist, while he was an enlightened liberal. who would feel at ease a few years later with the policy adopted by Giovanni Giolitti's government. But in 1900 Dronero's deputy was still the politician involved, rightly or wrongly, in the scandal of the Banca Romana and not the leader of the Italy of the "Belle Epoque" (the vile Italy of the vate D'Annunzio) in which the lira he favored gold and in which the most urgent reforms in the social field were under way, so much so that the astute Giolitti boasted "of having relegated Marx to the attic".

The profound sensitivity of Francesco Mavarelli made him feel the contrast between the times and his beliefs in a nagging way, giving him the feeling of being born in a wrong period or of being a man out of time. Of course the discomfort deriving from this state of affairs was not a reason for taking one's life, even if the gesture would have been consistent for a certain fringe of Decadents, but it certainly determined the climate in which the secret anguish that had tormented Francis for some time matured. . The expression is used by Vernarecci in the preface to Dell'Arte dei Fabbri, already mentioned above, and it certainly came from the mouths of his closest family members, his wife and mother, who intended to firmly exclude any form of depression of their joint.

A person's secret anguish belongs to the mystery of life and death which must be treated with the utmost respect. We will never know the triggering reason for suicide, nor are we interested in knowing it.

Five months later Francesca was born who, at least in the name, revived the memory of her father.

The figure and work of Francesco Mavarelli were publicly commemorated in the session of the City Council on 23 September 1900. Unanimously the councilors decided to parry

in mourning for a month the presidency desk which for six years had been occupied by their unfortunate colleague, to name the town's technical school after Francesco Mavarelli, to suspend the session as a sign of sorrow for the serious loss and solidarity towards family members .

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Today the first grade secondary school of Umbertide, what was once the middle school, is named after F. Mavarelli, together with G. Pascoli.

 

In 1998 the prof. Bruno Porrozzi has published

a volume, edited by the Pro-Loco Umbertide,

with the anastatic copy of the works of Francesco Mavarelli.

 

Sources:

“Umbertide in the 20th century 1900 - 1946” by Roberto Sciurpa

- Municipality of Umbertide, 2006

SAN SAVINO DI FRATTA

 

Monk at the Abbey of San Salvatore di Monte Acuto

 

 

 

 

curated by Fabio Mariotti

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

San Savino, born in Fratta, the current Umbertide, although a citizen of Perugia, as Umbertide has always been the land of the city of Perugia, can be counted among the Saints of the Diocese since Umbertide has always been part of our Church. This without detracting from the Perugian church which - according to Lancellotti in the manuscript Annals of Perugia - counts him among its saints.

Savino was therefore a monk at the Abbey of San Salvatore di Monte Corona, once known as Monte Acuto and a hermit in this monastery, he died in 1190 after a holy life adorned with heroic virtues that made him consider him already a saint in life.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The most remote written testimonies, apart from the ancient Camaldolese martyrologists, were the commemorative inscriptions of his prodigies, which could be read in a chapel erected in his honor in 1480 on the provincial road towards Perugia, in the locality of Citerna, on a farm that had belonged to the del Santo family, a farm which until today is still called San Savino. Unfortunately, there is no longer any trace of this chapel and one of its frescoes is also lost, which flanked a Madonna in Maestà, just outside the city, in a place once called Fonte Santa, on the border with the word Sant'Ubaldo.

Di Savino remains famous for the miracle of the cloak, in fact, since it is impossible to ford the Tiber to return to the convent together with two other friars, due to a flood of the river, he spread his cloak - just like the prophet Elijah or the more famous St. Francesco di Paola in the Strait of Messina - and, having climbed over it like a raft with his companions, he was able to return to the monastery.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

His body was buried in a chapel erected on the road that leads from the monastery of San Salvatore to the place where, several centuries later, the Hermitage of Monte Corona will be built, in the same place that had seen him isolated in hermitage for long periods. However, wars and suppressions, first the Napoleonic one and then that of the new unitary state, ruined the chapel, which is currently incorporated into the walls of a villa, completely unrecognizable. Only the toponym, San Savino, still indicates the site of the saint's tomb. Nothing is known of the fate that his relics may have made, almost certainly translated before the ruin of the building. The Camaldolese celebrated the memory of Savino, with the title of Saint, on 18 May.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The city of Umbertide preserves an ideal portrait of the Saint in the collection of the Illustrious Men of the city and it is also depicted in the large altarpiece of the Transfiguration attributed to Pomarancio, located in the drum of the dome of the Collegiate Church of Santa Maria della Reggia.

 

 

 

 

Sources:

“Hagiographic Profiles - The Saints, Blessed, Venerable and

Servants of God of the Eugubine Church "

by Pietro Vispi - Gubbio, 2008

ALESSANDRO MAGI SPINETTI

 

Benefactor, friend of the poor

 

curated by Fabio Mariotti

 

Alessandro Magi Spinetti, son of Francesco and Vincenza Mazzaforti, was born in Fratta in 1811. He was the descendant of one of the most important families in our city and dedicated his entire life to doing good works. He was one of the most assiduous supporters of the Congregation of Charity, "friend of all, men, animals and plants". He lived in via Spoletini until 1887, when he moved his residence to Città di Castello.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

He was one of the greatest supporters of the construction of the new hospital in Umbertide for which he donated 1,982 lire in 1883 and 12,848 lire and 55 cents in 1889 for the total sum of 14,830 lire and 55 cents, an enormous sum for those times. Suffice it to say that the Cassa di Risparmio donated 14,200 lire and the Municipality of Umbertide only 431 lire and 82 cents in three payments. These figures are reported, together with the names of all the benefactors, on the marble plaque placed in the entrance of the old hospital.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alessandro died on April 20, 1890 and at his funeral there was a choral participation of the city in gratitude for the numerous charitable activities carried out. The mayor Francesco Andreani also arranged for the presence at the funeral of the newly reconstituted town band directed by Maestro Massimo Martinelli .

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

His remains rest in the city cemetery

just past the main gate, a

left, in a travertine sarcophagus that

reports this epitaph:

 

“Here lies Alessandro Magi

Spinetti friend of the poor

born on the 24th April 1811.

The Congregation of Charity

grateful.

Died on 20th April 1890 "

 

The municipal administration

he dedicated a street to him on March 27, 1951.

 

Sources:

- “The man in toponymy” by Bruno Porrozzi - Pro-Loco Association

Umbertide, 1992

 

- "Two centuries on the march - Umbertide and the band" by Amedeo

Massetti - Petruzzi publisher - Città di Castello, 2008

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GIULIANO BOVICELLI

 

A close collaborator of Pope Benedict XIII, he wrote the original "Istoria delle Perucche"

and contributed to the birth of the "Monte Frumentario" to help the poor of Fratta

 



curated by Fabio Mariotti

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Giuliano Bovicelli was born in Fratta around the mid-1600s. He embraced an ecclesiastical career with commitment and conviction and linked his name to the establishment and financing of Monte Frumentario , which went into full operation in 1724, when Don Giuliano died.

He embellished the church of San Bernardino with rich furnishings and a beautiful statue of the saint.

In his will, with deed of July 27, 1724 by Gabrielli Notaro Romano, he left all his patrimony to the Confraternity of San Bernardino, of which he was a brother, to offer concrete help to the poor of the town, precisely through that Monte Frumentario that he tenaciously wanted.

 

His ingenuity drew him to the attention of Cardinal Pier Francesco Orsini of Rome, who chose him as his secretary and took him to Benevento, when he was appointed Archbishop of that city "and that he was there in the tearful catastrophe of June 5 1688. A horrible earthquake among so many devastations overturned a large part of the Archbishop's Palace. The Cardinal was thrown from the second floor to the ground. Where, falling, some woods crossing each other saved him from death. A gentleman, who was following him, was horribly crushed; and our Giuliano, it is not known how life escaped! (Antonio Guerrini).

Having become Pope, with the name of Benedict XIII , Orsini retained Don Giuliano at the Roman Curia with important positions, such as that of Prior of the Basilica of San Bartolomeo and Apostolic Protonotary.

 

It was during his stay in Benevento that Bovicelli wrote his " Istoria delle Perucche ", and the first publication took place in 1722 in that city. It is a work carried out with the utmost commitment and with a rigorous scruple of research that ranges from the ancient testimonies on this ornament, found among the oriental peoples, up to the early years of the 18th century.

The author's aim, however, is not that of a technical, aesthetic or social examination of the wig in general, but more simply a full-bodied reflection on the awkwardness of the wigs that ecclesiastics wore. From the very first lines of his work, Bovicelli explains its aims: “History of the perucche in which their origin, form, abuse and irregularity of those of the Ecclesiastics are shown”. Vanity must have taken the hand of many monsignors, if in the preface the author immediately enters the subject with these expressions:

“Today there are so many Ecclesiastics who wear the perucca; that I have great reason to believe that they are persuaded, at least for the most part, that this foreign ornament is forbidden to them, and that it has nothing in itself that suits the decency of their profession.

In order to portray them, therefore, from their error, I have undertaken this work by the stimulus of some people who are firmly pious and truly zealous in the discipline of the Church; ... it is bad to see that those of the Ecclesiastics are damned by the rules of the Church; and having shown how irregular and monstrous are those of the monks, I answer the objections which the clergymen and monks who adorn themselves may attach. I end up proposing the ways that can be employed to stop the course of this disorder and absolutely remove it from the Church ”.

The preface summarizes the content of the work which had a remarkable success, so much so that two years later, in 1724, an edition was printed also in Milan  (1) .

The exquisite sensitivity of the author realizes that the arguments against the use of wigs by the clergy were also valid for those with which the laity adorned themselves and seems almost to apologize by appealing to the tranquility and serenity of mind of the readers: "Since Most of the proofs of which I am sifting through to combat the proofs of the Ecclesiastics can quite rightly be applied to those of the Laity, and they will easily judge that it is scarcely more permissible for lay people than for ecclesiastics to wear the perucca. However that may be, I pray to God with the language of Tertullian that the peace and grace of Jesus our Lord will fall in abundance on the people who will read this Story with tranquility of mind and who will prefer truth to custom: Haec cum bona pace legentibus, veritatem. consuetudini praeponentibus, pax et gratia a Domino nostra Iesu redundet ”(May the peace and grace of God fall on those who read these lines with serenity and put truth before custom).

In the specific theme, Don Giuliano was aware of the sense of modernity which he helped to anticipate, even if the landing on this shore was not offered to him by a progressive vision, typical of the Enlightenment, but by the ridicule of the anachronistic and continuous carnival that masks exalted.

After 1863 a street was dedicated to him in the historic center of Umbertide, the one that is still called “Il Bocaiolo” today.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Note:

1) Two copies of the book are available at the Vatican Library. One, the one published in Benevento, in the General History Collection - Vol. 6360; the other, the one published in Milan, in CICOGNARA III - pos. 1602.

 

Sources:

- "Umbertide in the XVIII century" by Renato Codovini and Roberto Sciurpa - Municipality of Umbertide, 2003

- "History of the Land of Fratta now Umbertide" by Antonio Guerrini, completed by Genesio Perugini - Tipografia Tiberina, Umbertide 1883 (Anastatic copy by the "Local Publishing Group" of Digital Editor srl - Umbertide - 2009).

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LUIGI VIBI
Liberal of Fratta who died in 1849 in defense of the "Roman Republic"

 

 

 

 

edited by

Fabio Mariotti

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Luigi Vibi (1) , son of the notary Lorenzo, was born in Fratta in 1807. He attended high school in Perugia where he met Luigi Bonazzi and the actor Gustavo Modena with whom he maintained a good friendship. After high school he enrolled in the faculty of law and graduated in law. He was ill in health, but gifted with a brilliant intelligence which attracted the attention of an old noble from Fratta, Costantino Magi Spinetti, of liberal faith and enrolled in Freemasonry.

The old Freemason and the young graduate spent many hours together discussing liberalism and the French Revolution of which, at that time, partisan versions were given both from books and from ecclesiastical tutors.

The riots of 1831 found immediate response in Perugia, which arose on February 14 of that year. The city, through its Provisional Government Committee (2) , declared the Papal Government lapsed to the great amazement of the Apostolic Delegate Mons. Ferri (3).

The riots found the twenty-four year old Luigi Vibi already politically deployed and the Provisional Committee that had formed in Perugia had to know him well if just two days after taking office, on February 16, it entrusted him and Petronio Reggiani (4) with the task of going in Città di Castello (5) to establish a Provisional Government Committee in that city as well. Fratta's two sons immediately set to work by bringing together the Municipal Council of that city on February 17 to proceed with the establishment of the Provisional Committee.

The trust that the Perugian liberals had in the young Vibi testifies to his political trust and the validity of the school of the old master and Freemason.

The generous impulses of our patriots did not last long because they were cut short by the unfavorable trend of political events. The tricolor flags hoisted everywhere, including one on the roof of Vibi's house (6) , were soon withdrawn in anticipation of better times.

The ensuing repression forced many to seek safe shelter. Lorenzo Vibi, for example, Luigi's nephew took refuge in Mercatale, in Tuscany in the land of the Grand Duchy. They were actively looking for him to arrest him because, in those days, he had pushed a priest down the stairs and broke his leg. The connection with the fugitives was maintained by a certain Fiordo Bettoni who walked the approximately 25 kilometers away almost every day to bring them food, news and everything they needed.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In the first months of 1849 Luigi Vibi carried out all the activities he was capable of in favor of the Roman Republic and was one of those who reorganized the Civic Guard at Fratta. He managed to raise voluntary funds among the citizens to improve the conditions of the company of which he had become captain commander. His letter of reminder of the economic commitment signed in favor of the Civic or Citizen Guard is dated 20 April 1849.

"... I therefore find it necessary to invite you, citizen, to the payment already overdue of what you have signed, to which you are obliged in the aforementioned program, which you will pay within eight days from this date in the hands of this municipal debt collector in charge of this requirement ; anticipating that in case of non-compliance I will see myself, in spite of myself, bound to prevail over legal remedies ".

Below is the list of people to whom this circular letter was addressed and the list sees Sebastiano Vibi with 10 shields in the front row, followed by Gaetano Migliorati with 6 shields and by the old friend Costantino Spinetti.

The letter testifies that on April 20 Vibi was at Fratta, but still for a little while. On 30 April the Roman volunteers sustained the first victorious fight against the French of General Oudinot at the Janiculum and the news of the siege of Rome by the French led him to go and fight for his defense alongside Garibaldi (7) . He left on May 5 under the command of other volunteers grouped in the "Legion of Umbria".

The information we have available tells us that he was employed in the extreme southern sector of the Garibaldi array, at Porta Portese (8) , where he was seriously injured on 18 June.

On 21 June, the day of St. Louis, his name day, he stopped living for his injuries, at the Pellegrini hospital. He was 42 years old. His remains rest in the Ossario Garibaldino erected on the Janiculum and the plaque commemorating him is clearly visible because it is located immediately above that of Goffredo Mameli.

The funeral to Luigi Vibi (9) took place in Rome, in the church of S. Andrea delle Fratte which for the occasion was paved with many inscriptions praising his virtues and value. One of these, placed right at the entrance to the temple, said:

 

“Magnanimous contempt for domestic wealth

and of the honors which he was awarded in the city legion

very rare careless

in times when many foolishly yearn for it

mocking his vile age

and bodily sickness

captain Luigi Vibi da Fratta

of Perugia

forty-two

he fearlessly raised the arms of the last soldier

on May 5, 1849

and within the sacred city

on the breach and the barricades amidst the lightning of the bullets

with ardent valor fighting

ouch homeland love!

the night of June 21 ended so precious life

pierced by igneous lead

than to the homeland, to relatives, to friends, to the beneficiaries

more vivid ray of sunshine forever darkened

but which he added unknowingly to the bliss of the heavens

a new child

which the name-day saint protector

from afar the affectionate paternal right hand stretched out ".

 

The events of Luigi Vibi had a sequel in 1871. Filippo Natali, an Umbertidese employed in the Municipality of Magione, wrote to the Mayor asking that the ashes of the young republican be brought back to the cemetery of Umbertide, from that of S. Spirito, also known as the " One hundred and five ”, where they were.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

An interminable discussion began within the Municipal Council which recalled other Umbertidesi who died in similar circumstances, such as Giuseppe Mastriforti in Condino in 1866 and Giovan Battista Igi in Mentana in 1867. The discussion continued for a few months. Meanwhile, a kind letter was sent to Filippo Natali expressing "feelings of gratitude for the patriotic inspiration" and the ashes remained where they were.

The fruit of the long discussion was a stone, placed in our cemetery, with the following inscription:

"Memory

to

Luigi Vibi of Umbertide

honored citizen

of proven political faith

than fighting for the independence of Italy

it fell in Rome on the 21st of June MDCCCXLIX

Il Patrio Municipio ".

 

The tombstone does everything possible to make the figure of Luigi Vibi anonymous, dull and neutral. It would have been better to keep quiet.

 

In the fifties, in memory of our heroic fellow citizen, the municipal administration entitled "Largo L. Vibi" the space where his house existed before it was destroyed by the bombing of 25 April 1944.

Note:

1. The news was kindly provided by Mr. Giancarlo Vibi di Umbertide, now resident in Perugia.

2. It was formed by Antonio Monadi, Antonio Canci, Giuseppe Rosa, Luigi Batoli, Luigi Menicucci, Tiberio Borgia.

3. This version of the "amazement" does not agree with that supported by the historian Luigi Bonazzi according to which there was a tacit consent on the part of Mons. Ferri.

4. Petronio Reggiani was also from Fratta. On this occasion he also had the task of establishing the Provisional Government in San Giustino, which Reggiani did by appointing the Tifernate Dr. Pietro Dini as Commissioner of that place (Giuseppe Amizie, Storia di Città di Castello in the 19th century - Edit. S . Lapi - year 1902).

The Reggiani family gave valid patriots to the Italian Risorgimento, including Petronius, mentioned above. There was also Aristide who participated in the Risorgimento wars and Francesco di Gaetano who took part in the Perugian insurrection of 1859 and was then persecuted until September 1860, that is, until the arrival of the Italian troops (National Register of Noble Families of the Italian State listed below the historical profile - Ass. Historiae Fides, Milan - Edit. Graphics by S. Angelo, by Cesano Boscone - Year 1974, in the library of Dr. Angelo Zeno Reggiani).

5. G. Friendship, Op. Cit.

6. The house near the bridge over the Tiber (now Largo Vibi) was destroyed by the bombing of 25 April 1944.

7. Garibaldi spent the night in Umbertide with the Vibi family. A large walnut bed with columns was placed at his disposal. He said he felt calm because he was in the house of trusted friends and left, leaving as thanks a telescope covered in mahogany and brass, now in the possession of Mr. Giancarlo Vibi (Luigi's great-grandson) who gave us this testimony, without being able to specify the date. Reconstructing the series of events and carefully rereading the book of his Memoirs, it appears that on November 15, 1848, after the unfortunate events of Custoza and Novara, Garibaldi was in Ravenna with a handful of volunteers, waiting to embark to run to the aid of Venice. . But on that very day the assassination of Pellegrino Rossi and the revolt in the Papal State took place. Plans changed. Garibaldi went to Cesena, where he left his volunteers, and went to Rome "to make contact with the Minister of War so that he would put an end, once and for all, to our wandering existence" (from the Memoirs of Garibaldi). Probably on the occasion of this trip to Rome, between the end of November and the beginning of December 1848, Garibaldi passed through the upper Tiber valley and stopped at the Vibi house. In fact, other presences of the hero in Foligno and Cascia also date back to the same period.

8. Porta Portese, or Portuense, as it is next to the river port of old Rome (Ripa Grande). It is located on the right bank of the Tiber.

9. On the terrace of the Pincio, a few tens of meters from the balustrade, a marble bust of Luigi Vibi can still be seen today.

 

Sources:

"Umbertide nel Secolo XIX" by Renato Codovini and Roberto Sciurpa - Municipality of Umbertide, 2001

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I FOOD OF FRATTA

 

Several "characters" of the noble Cibo family were born in Fratta: Andrea, doctor and professor at the University of Perugia; the lawyer Alessandro, son of Andrea and the jurist Girolamo, a profound and distinguished man of letters.













 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Andrea Cibo

Andrea Cibo was born in 1493. He studied medicine and, still very young, taught with great praise at the University of Perugia. Pope, Clement VII, who had achieved the fame of Andrea's great knowledge, called him to Rome and appointed him his doctor, with a large salary and annual income for himself and for his heirs.

He was also highly esteemed by the Supreme Pontiff Paul III Farnese, who in the trip he made to Nice, wanted him with him, and in the Pope's meeting with the Emperor Charles V and with Francis I, King of France where the truce of ten years, he was the only one invited to attend the banquet given to those great potentates. He was also a companion of the same Pope on the other solemn journey of Busseto, as shown in a letter written by Carlo Gualterozzi to Bembo on June 18, 1543. letter present in a Code of the Barberini Library. In another letter of October 1553 Aretino calls Andrea Cibo "Safe health of the sick".

However, Andrea had so much love for his Fratta that in 1537 he had a hotel built at his expense for the convenience of all those who passed through to go to Perugia and Tuscany.

 

 

 

After having served as a doctor for two other Popes, Julius III and Marcellus II, in 1557 he returned to Perugia where he stayed for five years. In 1562 he was recalled to Rome by Pope Pius IV who appointed the general proto-doctor of the health college in Rome.

After the death of Pius IV he settled in Perugia where he lived very honorably until his death, which took place on May 17, 1576, at the serious age of eighty-three. The funeral honors dedicated to him by every city order were grandiose and Orazio Cardaneti da Montone, illustrious rhetorician of the 16th century, read a very forbitious and learned prayer.

From Guerrini we also know that "He was buried in the Cathedral Church of S. Lorenzo (N, dr of Perugia), where three years before he had placed this modest memory by himself:

 

1574

ANDREA CIBO

AAE 80

POSUIT

 

He left a certain Lucrezia a widow, with whom he had several children, including Lavinia, who in the year 1579

she married Alessandro Degli Oddi. Another son of his was Alexander , who was a great success

esteem in legal disciplines. He often lived in Fratta, and in 1610 he stayed there for a long time

he retained with Adriana Amerigi the gentlewoman of Perugina his wife for health reasons.

Poor Adriana on 21 September of the same year unfortunately had to go there

succumb; and was buried in the Church of San Francesco, where still to the right of the entrance

main reading is the funerary inscription, which the sad husband placed there ".

After 1863, one of the most important streets of the historic center was dedicated to Andrea, formerly via Diritta or Reaale, and today considered somewhat the Corso of our city.

 

 

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Mauro Cibo

Mauro Cibo, whose date of birth is unknown, as Guerrini recalls in his History of the land of Fratta, “was another scion of the noble and illustrious Cibo family. From his earliest age he showed a sweetness of character, an unabashedness of morals, an indefatigable love for divine things that finally, after having completed his career with immense profit, decided to retire from the lure of the world.

In 1570 he was received as a novice among the Camaldolese hermits in the Sacred Hermitage of Monte Corona.

A man of very exemplary, austere life and profound doctrine, he soon acquired the esteem and veneration of all his confreres, so that four times, by the General Chapter, he deserved to be raised to the supreme degree of Major of the whole Order.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

He always worked for the growth of the Congregation and obtained many privileges and advantages from various popes, Paul V - Clement VIII - Leo XI.

He died in Monte Corona in the year 1604.

Cesare Crispolti in his "Perugia Augusta", Lancellotti, Jacobilli, all record the praises of the venerable Hermit! "

 

* * * * * *

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pompey Food

The date of birth of Pompeo Cibo, another illustrious character of this family from Fratta, is unknown. According to Antonio Guerrini “he was a man endowed with nobility of heart, of supreme wisdom and doctrine, teacher and example of all citizen virtues.

He was decorated for non-liar merits of the St. Stephen's Cross (1) ; then honorably aggregated to the Perugian nobility.

He lived a long life esteemed and loved by all and in February 26, 1641 he passed to eternal peace sincerely mourned by all ”.

 

1. The Order of Santo Stefano was established on March 15, 1562 by Cosimo I of Tuscany, who was its first grand master. It was named after Santo Stefano I pope and martyr, because on its anniversary (2 August) the Medici troops had achieved two important victories: that of Scannagallo (1554) and that of Montemurlo (1559). The emblem of the Order was the red cross on a white background. It was suppressed by the French in 1809, reconstituted in 1817 and definitively abolished by the provisional government of 1859. (The photo of the symbol of the Order is taken from the site “Santo Stefano Pope and Martyr and his Knights).

 

The photos are from the photographic archive of the Municipality of Umbertide and Fabio Mariotti

 

Sources:

- "History of the land of Fratta now Umbertide" by Antonio Guerrini (completed by Genesio Perugini) - Typography Tiberina Umbertide - 1883

- "Umbertide - Man in toponymy" by Bruno Porrozzi - Pro Loco Umbertide Association - 1992

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CESARE BARTOLELLI - CRISTOFORO PETROGALLI

 

Two characters from illustrious families of ancient Fratta from the first half of the 1600s.

Both played important roles, in different sectors, in the employ

of some of the protagonists of the political and ecclesiastical life of the time

 

Cesare Bartolelli

Originally from Fratta from a distinguished family, as a young man he waited with great love for the study of civil and canonical laws at the University of Perugia, and in both he obtained a doctoral degree.

He was first in Città di Castello as judge where he exercised this office with such prudence and rectitude, as to receive the applause and admiration of the best citizens.

Leaving Città di Castello, he went to Rome where for his knowledge and singular merits he was appointed Auditor to Cardinal Pietro Aldobrandini, then General Superintendent of all the possessions of this house, soon managing to achieve the highest honors, up to to that of governor of Rome.

Pope Clement VIII, who had the highest esteem for him, sent him twice as extraordinary ambassador to Prague to negotiate important negotiations with the Austrian emperor.

In 1602, as a reward for his dedication, he was appointed bishop of Forlì. He held that church for thirty-two years, all spent for the good of the population entrusted to his pastoral care. He spent a life of irreproachable customs, all aimed at charity, as a truly apostolic man.

 

 

 

 

 

He founded the Chapel of the Crucifix in San Salvatore in Perugia and in Fratta he had the Chapel of San Rocco built in an elegant architectural form in our church of San Francesco, with one of the statue of the Saint. Also enriching it with staves and valuable paintings.

On the arch of the chapel, surmounted by the noble coat of arms, you can still read his name, a clear demonstration of the affection he always had towards this homeland of his.

He died in Forlì on 7 January 1634.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

* * * * * *

 

 

CRISTOFORO PETROGALLI

Cristoforo Petrogalli was educated to the hard labors of the field by his illustrious uncle Pietro Giacomo Petrogalli, with whom he found himself participating in many feats of arms and in the capture of the fortress of Bona in Barberia where he proved his valor and his courage by saving the insignia of the company of the Perugian captain Carlo della Penna who, due to the death of the standard bearer, would have fallen into the hands of the enemy.

For his many merits, Cristoforo was very well received at the court of Tuscany. Francesco de 'Medici, before dying, honored him with his sword and his jacket or chain mail in the shape of a bodice, which warriors wore in battles. He also assigned him a salary of 19 piastres a month and a noble apartment.

On 6 October 1637 he was appointed by Cardinal Carlo de 'Medici captain of the broken spears (Ed. In the 16th and 17th centuries , the chosen soldiers, both infantry and cavalry, were called broken spears, who assisted the corporals and sometimes the sergeants in their various Duties.

Broken spear was also the name of various militias in the service of sovereigns or high-ranking personalities).

Grand Duke Cosimo II, who knew very well the military prowess of this captain of ours, on 21 September 1642 entrusted him with the command of a company of 200 infantry and in the following year, on 23 November, promoted him to the rank of sergeant major in the third of Field Master Count Angelo Maria Stufa.

Finally, for his singular merits, from the kind Florence he had the great honor of being enrolled, on January 10, 1644, in the register of his fellow citizens.

He died in Florence in 1648.

 

- The photos of Fratta's characters are part of the Gallery of paintings of historical characters of the Municipality of Umbertide

- The photos of the church of San Francesco are by Fabio Mariotti

- The other photos are taken from "Wikimedia Commons - Wikipedia"

 

Sources:

- "History of the land of Fratta now Umbertide" by Antonio Guerrini (completed by Genesio Perugini) - Typography Tiberina Umbertide - 1883

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GIOVANNI TOMMASO PAO (U) LUCCI
Great man of letters from Fratta in the service of the Papacy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

curated by Fabio Mariotti

Antonio Guerrini, in his work "History of the land of Fratta now Umbertide", tells us that "In 1542 Gio. Tommaso Paolucci was born in Fratta. He advanced so much in the study of the Fine Letters, that he was subsequently Secretary of the Cardinals Fulvio della Corgna, Ottavio Acquaviva and Gio. Vincenti Gonzaga. He was also very versed (also) in Mathematics, in Histories, in Greek and Latin Letters. Finally giving himself to the study of Canonical and Civil Laws, he made an admirable profit in them; and in Rome in 1585 he was redeemed (crowned ) of Doctoral Degree in both law. He was tutor of Greek letters to Monsignor Matteo Barberini, who later became pope with the name of Urban VIII. He always continued in the esteem and love of the aforementioned cardinals so that Gonzaga beyond he wanted to raise him to dignity with a large pension, appointing him with a license sent on February 6, 1580 canon of the Church of San Gregorio in Velabro. Later he was conferred the Archpriesthood of Santa Maria in Cosmedin , otherwise known as of the Greek School, with a license sent by the same Cardinal on June 8, 1585 under the pontificate of Sixtus V, that bruised and shy old man, who as soon as he was proclaimed Pope threw down his stick and boldly curled his head!

Gio. Thomas wrote to give to the

print various works,

"Five Volumes of Selected Letters"

directed to various rulers, cardinals,

Distinguished Prelates, Prelates and Knights;

a “Treatise on public things and

policies "; a “Summary of

political warnings "; various comments

on the “Annals and Histories of the Prince

of the political writers, Cornelio Tacito ",

which remained unpublished in the hands of the heirs.

His merit went so much beyond that

Clement VIII made him his secretary

of the Latin letters, to which honorable

officio unfortunately did not come

because overwhelmed prematurely by

  death on 1st December 1599,

fifty-seventh year of his age.

It was public rumor that out of courtesan envy he was poisoned in S. Maria Maggiore in celebrating the S. Sacrifice. His body was buried

in Rome in the Church of S. Maria in Cosmedin, as shown in the Book of the Dead of the said Parish p. 25, aforementioned year ".

 

The municipal administration dedicated the central street of the Fontanelle district to him on 18 December 1960.

Sources:

- "History of the land of Fratta now Umbertide" by Antonio Guerrini (completed by Genesio Perugini) - Typography Tiberina Umbertide, 1883

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FABRIZIO STELLA
 

Distinguished jurist from Fratta between the second half of the 1500s and the first half of the 1600s

 











 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

He was born in Fratta in 1565 distinguishing himself in the legal disciplines. Due to his undoubted abilities he was called to hold administrative positions in various important cities, often disengaging himself in "foreign embassies". Guerrini, in his "History of the land of Fratta", tells that the lawyer Fabrizio Stella was particularly dear to many eminent personalities, including Cardinal Bevilacqua of Ferrara (he was apostolic legate of Umbria and Perugia, who elected him protector of the city and honorary citizen, from 1600 to 1606 - Ed), as shown by many family letters written to him kept by his heirs.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The King of Portugal John IV, founder of the Braganza dynasty, decorated it with the Cross of St. James of Lusitania giving it many privileges, as emerges from the relative diploma. Returning to his homeland at the age of 79, he paid the supreme debt to nature on January 15, 1644 and was buried in the Church of the Conventual Fathers of this land, leaving his descendants legacies of honors and riches, but his family was soon extinct with the death of the three married women Paolucci, Mazzaforti and Savelli.

 

 

 

In 1880 the municipal administration dedicated what was once via dell'ologio to Fabrizio Stella.

 

Sources:

- "History of the land of Fratta now Umbertide" by Antonio Guerrini (completed by Genesio Perugini) - Typography Tiberina Umbertide - 1883

- "Umbertide - Man in toponymy" by Bruno Porrozzi - Pro Loco Umbertide Association - 1992

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GIOVAN BATTISTA SPOLETINI

Distinguished jurist, governor of many cities of the Papal State,
celebrated in Fratta for his many merits as Father of the Fatherland












 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Giovan Battista Spoletini, a man of great ingenuity and supreme integrity, was born in Fratta in 1557. He graduated in the legal disciplines for which he was profoundly versed; for this he undertook a government career and was appointed by the S. Consulta Governor of the ancient city of Sutri in the year 1592, of Piperno in 1593, of Napi in 1595; then of Acquapendente, Veroli and others.

Returning to his homeland, from the height of his wisdom and doctrine, he constantly worked for his good, especially in the circumstance of the ruin of the two arches of the bridge over the Tiber which occurred in the year 1610. They poured the inhabitants of Fratta into the most fierce consternation as their trade languished due to the difficulty of transit to Città di Castello and Tuscany and because with their limited economic resources they saw no hope of being able to reactivate it.

It was Spoletini who, inflamed with homeland love, went to Rome several times, with the protection of the distinguished prelates, his ancient acquaintances, eloquently exposing the difficult situation in which his homeland was, obtaining from Paul V Borghese, a shrewd and enterprising Pope , that the Congregation of the Good Government provided for the rebuilding of our bridge, since, by good luck, this Pope knew well the land of Fratta, Perugia, Città di Castello, Montone, Citerna. And since in the allotment made by Monsignor Marini apostolic commissioner in Perugia, Fratta was heavily taxed by a quarter of the total expenditure, our Spoletini went again to Rome and from the Congregation of the Good Government he obtained a different allotment, that is, that divided the total expenditure in twelve ounces, nine were borne by Perugia and its countryside, two by Città di Castello, and the other part for two thirds to Fratta and one third to Montone. One cannot imagine how many oppositions were made by the aforementioned municipalities, and especially by that of Città di Castello, to the point of planning the construction of a wooden bridge; but by the industriousness, wisdom and influence of Spoletini everything was overcome and in 1614 the construction of the bridge with only two arches was contracted out for a cost of seven thousand scudi. The work was quite advanced that a terrible flood occurred which unfortunately devastated what had been carried out! Then new and fiercer oppositions arose and many appeals were made against the contractors, as well as the Spoletini himself who had been appointed Superintendent of the work. Envy and wickedness barbarously joined in slandering Spoletini as a participant in the fraud of bad workmanship so that, in June 1615, an arrest order was issued for him and for the contractors. Spoletini was treated with all due regard to his condition and was confined to a room in the Palazzo Priorale in Perugia with the exhibition of a security of one thousand scudi. In the end, his innocence and honesty were recognized and he was then honorably reinstated not only in his primitive qualification of Over-standing the factory, but for the damage suffered he was decreed an indemnity of 100 scudi to be paid half by the Municipality of Fratta, half from the other Municipalities subject to the Consortium, an indemnity that Spoletini generously did not accept. The contract for the three-arch bridge was therefore renewed for the sum of 6,500 scudi, and in 1619, perfectly completed, it was made passable.

Despite the persecution unjustly suffered, Spoletini continued to always be the protector and benefactor of this land, to the point that he was assigned the glorious name of Pater Patriae. His home was in via del Piano.

In 1634 Giovan Battista Spoletini ceased to live at the age of 77. All generally mourned for him, because when enmities and envy were cooled above the grave, men are judged without lies there as they really were. With great solemnity he was buried in our Church of San Francesco, where to the right of the Presbytery there is a sepulchral plaque dedicated to him where you can still read the following inscription which recalls the merits and important activities carried out during his life: DOM "Jo Baptista de Spoletinis LVD. Ac Civi Perusino de Fracta, here sub Clemente VIII Pont. Max Civitates Sutrína, Nepesina, Anxuris, et Monti Falisci, Terram Priverni, et Aquepend. Gubernavit et demum in Patriam neglessus, Pontem collapsum summo animi, corporisque labore, summaque vigilantia, oppugnatis contrariis in pristinum restit. curavit Deoq. Jovi obtinuit. Jo Maria filius ad memoriam laborum sui Patris iam septugenarii posuit Ann. Dm. 1637. "

 

After 1863 the street where he lived was dedicated to him, the ancient via del piano which at the time was the main road to go to Perugia.

 

Sources:

- "History of the land of Fratta now Umbertide" by Antonio Guerrini (completed by Genesio Perugini) - Typography Tiberina Umbertide - 1883

- "Umbertide - Man in toponymy" by Bruno Porrozzi - Pro Loco Umbertide Association - 1992

- “The talking stones” by Pietro Vispi - Local publishing group - Digital Editor Srl, Umbertide 2021

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ORAZIO MANCINI

Fratta prelate and diplomat of the second half of the sixteenth century

 

Abbot Mancini was born in Fratta as honest and wealthy parents in the year 1546. As a young boy he completed a full course of studies at the University of Bologna and then went to Rome where, having proved his uncommon talent, he remained for fifty years he was employed as Secretary to the Most Eminent Caraffa, S. Severino and Doria, and with this important office he had the opportunity to attend as many as seven Conclaves.

He had very important shops entrusted to him by Philip III, King of Spain, from whom he was remunerated with an annual pension of one thousand scudi a thousand on the rich Archbishopric of Taranto and that of Seville, in addition to six thousand Castilian scudi that the Duke of Lerma, supreme minister, he donated in the name of the King. At the same time he was offered the Bishopric of Cefalù and Girgenti and other large cities of Sicily, which our Mancini modestly gave up.

 

 

It was also very well accepted by various Supreme Pontiffs and Princes of Italy, especially Ferdinand II, Grand Duke of Tuscany and Duke Charles of Savoy, of whom he was requested as a gentleman and diner of Cardinal Maurizio, his son.

 

 

 

At an advanced age and tired from the many hardships sustained, he retired to Perugia where, together with Father Sozio Sozi, he founded the Congregation of the Oratory of San Filippo Neri (1) , starting the construction of the house and the magnificent temple called Chiesa Nuova or Church of San Filippo Neri, the greatest example of the Baroque in Perugia, built between 1627 and 1665 under the direction of the Roman architect Paolo Maruscelli, for the construction of which he employed large revenues from abbeys, pensions and all his patrimonial assets.

He died in Perugia in the year 1629, at the age of 86. In a painting that was in the Church of San Giovanni di questo Terra, representing the name of Jesus, one could read at the bottom this writing: "Oratius Mancinus fieri fecit, et donavit Anno 1598."

 

Its name replaced the old denomination

of via Porta Nuova after 1863.

Note:

1. The Congregation of the oratory originated from

community of secular priests gathered in Rome

around San Filippo Neri, first at the church

of San Girolamo della Carità (1551) and then near that

of San Giovanni dei Fiorentini (1564); was erected

canonically in 1575 by Pope Gregory XIII,

who donated to the oratorians the church of Santa Maria in

Vallicella, and its constitutions were approved by

Pope Paul V in 1612.

 

Sources:

- "History of the land of Fratta now Umbertide" by Antonio Guerrini (completed by Genesio Perugini) - Typography Tiberina Umbertide - 1883

- "Umbertide - Man in toponymy" by Bruno Porrozzi - Pro Loco Umbertide Association - 1992

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THE SPUNTA DI FRATTA FAMILY

 

The conspicuous family of the Spunta had many characters who, between the 1500s and the mid 1600s, gave prestige and ornament to our city both for skill in arms and in legal and literary matters.  The most remote news that has come down to us reminds us of Marino, notary;  Paolo, Marino's nephew,  official of the Papal State; Francesco, son of Paul, also an official of the Papal State; Alfonso, son of Paolo, man of letters.

 

Marino Check

Son of Domenico Spunta, he was born in Fratta in 1480. He was highly indoctrinated especially in the legal disciplines. He worked as a notary public and his deeds are kept in the historic municipal archive of our city in twenty-nine voluminous protocols ranging from 1507 to 1545.

"There are few Offices - says an important Jurisconsult - that require such a great set of honesty, knowledge and conciliatory spirit as that of the Notariat".

Thirty-eight years of honorable practice in such a delicate and important career, the handling of great and jealous interests concerning the most important village and foreign families are the indubitable testimony of Marino Spunta's mirrored honesty and profound wisdom.

The ancient statutes of our community dating back to 1362 were extremely disfigured and damaged by time and long use, for which the General Council recognized the need for them to be reformed and partly renewed "also because the new age from antiquity in many different things , he continually wishes to promote a new rite ». Among the many distinguished men who presided over public shops at that time, Angelo di Antonio Cibo, Antonio di Ser Orsino, Simone de Speranza and Bentivenga di Antonio Dell'Uomo, defenders of the Castle, Ser Paolo di Cristofero Martinelli, public notary and extremely person circumspect, "not that many other virtuous men of the Castle, of good, honest and political amateurs", entrusted our Spunta with the direction of this important work that he successfully completed on February 22, 1521 and which was extensively approved.

The date of death of Marino Spunta is not known while it seems that he had a son named Antonio , also a public notary, who exercised from 1538 to 1558 as we can find in the public archives of this Municipality in the twenty-three protocols he left.

 

Paolo Spunta

Grandson of Marino, he was born in Fratta on the decline of the 16th century. He was the husband of Madama Orsolina and had many children, including Francesco and Alfonso of whom we will speak later.

Paolo by natural inclination dedicated himself to military art and in 1627 he had already risen to the rank of Loco-Lieutenant, conferred on him by Carlo Barberini, General of the Pontifical Troops. Then for the skills demonstrated he passed to the rank of Captain with the appointment of Cardinal Camillo Panfili, General Superintendent of the State Militias. At the same time he occupied many prestigious positions and, among others, by Ottaviano Carafa, general commissioner, was appointed under commissioner for army commissions in the province of Umbria.

All this can be found in authentic documents existing in the Mazzaforti family and in their other heirs.

 

Francesco Spunta

Even Francesco, son of Paolo, following in his father's footsteps, was very capable in politics and an intrepid and valiant soldier. At a young age he was already appointed standard bearer of his company by Cardinal Camillo Panfili. In the war between Urban VIII and the Florentines he distinguished himself by strenuously defending the Castles of Montalto, Polgeto and Montacuto, repelling the assailants several times and making a good number of prisoners, as can be seen from very extensive documents issued by his Excellency Gio. Battista Bono Governor General of the Weapons in this land. He had frequent times to carry out with his soldiers various expeditions under the command of Mr. Duca Savelli, Lieutenant General of S. Chiesa. Then militating under the Austrian flags, by the Commander Mr. Tommaso Mengrahell he was raised to the distinguished post of Regimental Standard Bearer.

 

Alfonso Check

Alfonso, another son of Paul, eclipsed any other for his high merits, especially in Latin literature. He was employed in various Courts and his Majesty Queen Christina Alexandra of Sweden appointed him tutor and secretary of Latin Literature. Cristina, daughter of Gustavo Adolfo and Eleonora Princess of Brandenburg, after the death of her father in Lutzen in 1632, fighting against the Austrians, was proclaimed Queen at the tender age of six. However, it remained for a long time under the tutelage of severe Regents, who, in order to educate it worthily and according to the paternal dispositions, surrounded it with the most renowned tutors of Europe. It is believed that the study of languages was the predominant passion of that young queen.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pierre Bayle, the great philosopher of Carlat, asserts that every day she read some original pages of Tacitus. Therefore our Alfonso being called as tutor and secretary in that magnificent court is the sure proof of his profound doctrine. There he was a companion and friend of the famous S almasio di Semur, of Vossio, Boschart, René Deschartes (Descartes) and of other great ones. The delightful and erudite Cristina devoted entirely to literature and sciences, annoyed by what she called the "splendid servitude of the throne", on June 16, 1654 and at the flourishing age of 28, decided to abdicate the heroic Crown of the Vasa. Our Alfonso spent another five years revered and honored in that splendid Palace, disengaging important embassies; but finally due to his poor health and the turbulence of the Kingdom, with a Diploma of King Charles X of 10 April 1659 he was returned to his homeland, where a year later he ceased to live and where he had extraordinary funeral honors and the lamented general.

To Marino Spunta, and ideally to all the other members

of the family, what once was dedicated

it was via delle Petresche, in the historic center.

 

The photos of the ancient characters are taken from Wikipedia.

 

Sources:

- "History of the land of Fratta now Umbertide" by Antonio

Guerrini (completed Genesio Perugini) - Typography

Tiberina Umbertide - 1883

- “Umbertide - Man in toponymy” by Bruno

Porrozzi - Pro Loco Umbertide Association - 1992

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FILIPPO AND GIOVAN BATTISTA FRACASSINI

 

The Fracassini family, originally from Monte Acuto, had two important personalities in 1600 who honored the land of Fratta. Filippo, master mason, who made his great skills available for architectural works that we can still admire today. Giovan Battista, distinguished lawyer, judge and governor of important cities of that time.

 

Filippo Fracassini

The exact dates of the birth and death of this important descendant of the Fracassini family are not known. In the first half of the seventeenth century Filippo Fracassini was a famous operator in the art of architecture, not so much comforted by science but by his natural talent and passionate exercise. There was no great undertaking in Fratta in those times that was not entrusted to Fracassini. He, together with the master builders Ercolano da Civitella and Francesco Valentini, rebuilt the two arches of the bridge over the Tiber which was demolished by the extraordinary flood of 1610. He was director of the factory of the new Church of Santa Croce, which was erected between the years 1610 and 1647.

He reformed the grandiose Temple of the Reggia on the design and direction of another worthy Frattegiano, Bernardino Sermigni, and executed many other works of no less importance, all with a happy outcome.

The very learned D. Silvio Fidanza wrote the following epigraph in praise of Fracassini:

"DEO CRUCI VIRGINI PHILIPPHUS DE FRACASSINIS SINE LITERIS NUMERIS DISERTISSIMUS PONTEM INFECTUM ARTE REFECIT POST DILUVIUM TRIA MILIA NONGENTA DECEM PRIDIE NONAS SEPTEMBRIS SACRAS AEDES SANCTAE CRUCIS A CRISTI AREE MORTE MARY 1649 JUBILEE 1645 ".

 

On 18 December 1960 the road leading to Preggio was named after him.

 

Giovan Battista Fracassini

This distinguished citizen of Fratta, after having obtained a degree in philosophical and legal studies at the University of Perugia, moved to Rome to exercise the office of defender in that Supreme Curia for a long time and with excellent profit. With licenses from the S. Consulta he ruled the government of many important towns and cities, in particular Norcia and Camerino, until in 1680 by Monsignor Ghisleri he was recalled to Norcia as Lieutenant General of the Prefecture. Despite the exercise of these important offices, he never ceased to occupy himself in the functions of lawyer, as can be seen from many cases entrusted to him by Franchetti and brilliantly resolved, by the multiplicity of his writings, reports and votes that were published for the prints. He was Judge in Foligno, Vicar General in S. Sepolcro and Città di Castello. But finding himself at a very advanced age and unable to bear so many hard labors, he returned to his native land where, in the arms of his relatives who loved him so much and friends who greatly esteemed him, he gave his soul back to God in the year 1689. .

 

Sources:

- "History of the land of Fratta now Umbertide" by Antonio Guerrini (completed by Genesio Perugini) - Typography Tiberina Umbertide - 1883

- "Umbertide - Man in toponymy" by Bruno Porrozzi - Pro Loco Umbertide Association - 1992

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GIOVANNI MAURI

 

In the first half of the 1600s he was, among other things, master of the Order of
Minor Conventual Fathers and bishop of Nusco









 

 

 

 

 

The biography is taken from Guerrini's book, fully preserving the Italian of the time, from the late nineteenth century.

 

Giovanni Mauri was born in this land in 1566.

As a young man he professed among the Frs. MM . (Minor Fathers) Conventuals of St. Francis and for the tireless study and continued exercise of the most splendid virtues he became Master of that Holy Order and occupied the most luminous offices there. In the year 1626 he was already Procurator General in Rome; in 1629 Apostolic Commissioner and Visitor in Sardinia; in 1634 Inquisitor in Siena and Florence; in 1638 Consultor of the Holy Office in Rome; then Patriarchal Vicar in Constantinople.

 

 

 

Famous in preaching, he trod the most distinguished Pergams (Ed. In architecture

sacred, a kind of balcony (also called pulpit) which is usually found in churches

inside, now leaning against the walls or with columns or pillars, now isolated and supported by

small but richly decorated architectural elements, from which the

preacher addresses the faithful) of Italy, and was marvelous for his immense erudition and for his robust facondia.

Gentle verse, profound mathematician, Master of sweet melodies, and sublime Organist, he often rapt in ecstasy Amuirath IV called the Valiant, who wished to sing and play in his presence above the proud Minarets, gracefully towering on the enchanted shores of the Bosphorus. And he received precious gifts, which on his return to Rome were surprised by Pontiff Barberini himself, to whom Mauri was present with a rich fur coat and an exquisite inestimable work coat.

 

After the highly praised exercise of such delicate and important offices, Urban VIII in 1641 consecrated Mauri as Bishop of Nusco, Principality-Further in the Neapolitan area, where after just four years with the peace of the just, with the sanctity of example, with the blessing of all the His people, who loved him as their Father, fell asleep in the Lord on November 1, 1644.

 

Sources:

- "History of the land of Fratta now Umbertide" by Antonio Guerrini (completed by Genesio Perugini) - Typography Tiberina Umbertide - 1883

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BERNARDINO SERMIGNI

 

Great honor had Fratta from having given birth in 1600

to the architect Bernardino Sermigni, descendant of an ancient and titled family

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In the year 1640, seeing the dome of the Church of the Reggia at risk of collapse, he immediately set to work, together with Flori , to avert this tragic event. After consulting the architect of the Grand Duke and other corresponding artists, it was finally decided to completely renew the internal order giving it a more noble form, also following the advice of Pietro Burelli , another talented engineer from Fratta.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This Temple has an octagonal plan on the outside, circular inside with a diameter of twenty meters; and its height twice the diameter. When you enter the church you are immediately struck by the boldness of the great dome, as if thrown into the air, by the elegant, majestic harmony of the whole. The buttresses of the primitive construction did not oppose vigorous resistance to the considerable thrust of the structure, so it was necessary to strengthen them. And here is the genius of our artist not to stop among the only remedies of arid solidity but also trying to combine this with aesthetics to draw the most pleasant benefit from it. Around the internal walls there is a complete order of sixteen columns, somewhat detached from the wall, on which the exhibits of the corresponding pillars are shown. The intercolumns (Ed. Space between two columns) are odd. In the largest, which is an aerospace (Ed. Temple in which the intercolumniation had a width greater than three diameters) , eight large round arches well decorated with cornices and stuccoes, and with their large recess they make magnificence and convenient to the altars , the orchestra and the two main entrances. The other intercolumniation is somewhat narrower, all divided up by niches, divided between them by the continuing frame of the side shutters. These various intercolumns make up admirably separate groups of coupled columns, which present at the same time speed and the most graceful movement.

The order of the colonnade is Doric and has a remarkable height of 9.60 meters. How much philosophy of art in the choice of this order! Our columns, which here support such a laborious office, had to be characterized by the constant character of the most severe robustness. The slight streaks in the large stems have also been suppressed and short grooves indicated only in the collar of the Capitals. The primeval robust height of the architrave has been preserved and the most sensible parsimony in the limbs (Ed. Horizontal Membrature placed in conjunction with columns) . And for this artistic criterion and also to avoid the inconveniences in the cornice mostly resulting from the coupling of the columns, triglyphs are suppressed (Ed. The triglyph is an architectural element of the Doric order frieze of Greek and Roman architecture. stone tile, decorated with vertical grooves) and modiglioni (Ed. The modiglione, also called modione, is a sculpted shelf that supports the upper protruding part of the frame) , following the example of the Farnesina del Peruzzi (Ed. Villa Farnesina in Rome built around the 1505 on a project by the architect Baldassarre Peruzzi) and of the Palazzo Stoppani by Raffaele (Ed. Palazzo Stoppani in Bergamo in 1500).

Above the described entablature (Ed. Architectural structure, including the horizontal element of the trilithic system, of the Greek-Roman architectural orders and consists of architrave, frieze and cornice ), which with the right alignment circumscribes the whole Temple, stands the large drum della Cupola shaped as a sumptuous attic. Above each column we see repeated as many pillars, to which the proportional projection of an elegant frame with all purity of art composes the ornament of the relative capitals. In the intermediate spaces there are stupid arches for grandiose windows; various collections for bas-reliefs and paintings. Then, a little higher, another frame, so that the adorned nut, which is created between these frames, constitutes a graceful base for the great dome, which boldly develops elliptically at the top. Here four large windows send streams of light inside. Here ribs that arise from the subordinate orders adorn the grandiose curve of the structure and converging at the top rejoin to raise a lantern, which the magnificent building elegantly crowns.

On the outside, the internal architecture is repeated with all simplicity. It was thought for greater beauty to leave the dome naked outside, encrusted with lead, but the seriousness of the expense did not allow it. The construction of the walls is brick, the bands and stucco decorations, the architectural orders are all in pietra serena and executed with the most exquisite stereotomic ( Ed Stereotomìa is the set of geometric knowledge and traditional techniques relating to the tracing and cutting of the blocks and of freestone segments and their assembly and use in complex structures related to architectural constructions) cleanliness.

 

Shortly after 1647 this great Temple was completed again, which are classics

artists consider among the most beautiful of the Umbrian districts and that it certifies

brightly the valentia of our architect.

 

Sermigni died in 1670, at the age of 70.

 

Sources:

- “History of the land of Fratta now Umbertide” by Antonio Guerrini

(completed Genesio Perugini) - Typography Tiberina Umbertide - 1883

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GIOVANNI PACHINO and CINTIO PAULUCCI

 

Two characters of ancient Fratta who distinguished themselves, the first in the
legal disciplines, the second in military art

 

 

Giovanni Pachino

Distinguished jurist, in the first half of the 1400s he was Grand Master of the income of the Duke of Milan Filippo Maria Visconti

 

Giovanni Pachino (or Paghino) was born in Fratta towards the end of the 14th century. I started very young to study and then deepen the legal disciplines, so much so that I earned the nickname of "Splendor of Italian Jurisprudence". He traveled extensively in even distant regions for the desire to know, study and deepen the different customs and customs of other peoples and their laws.

Pachino, for his experiences and for his doctrine, was called to the service of authoritative princes and personalities of his time, who repaid him with honors and riches.

 

Shortly before the middle of the 15th century he was called to Milan, to the important court of Filippo Maria Visconti who, for the trust and esteem he had in our fellow citizen, also entrusted him with the prestigious position of Grand Master of all the ducal income.

He had a large family.

It is probable that, in consideration of a possible dynastic change in Milan, Pachino asked and obtained permission from the Visconti to be able to return to Umbria. This is how he settled in Perugia in 1443, where he became an honorary citizen. In the Perugian Annals of the year 1443 he was defined as “De Castro Fractae Filiorum Umberti egregius et famosissimus legum doctor”. He died in Perugia in 1444.

 

A street was named after Giovanni Pachino, a crossroads of Via Roma.

 

 

 

 

Cintio Paulucci

Valent man of arms, he knew how to honor himself by fighting for the Venetian Republic

 

Towards the end of the 16th century, shortly after the formidable battles in Cyprus where Pietro Giacomo Petrogalli worked wonders of great value, another brave warrior of our land was fighting in the employ of the invincible Venice.

Cintio Paulucci, a man of perspicacious talent and particularly expert in military art, inspired by the genius of the times, fearlessly threw himself where battles both against Muslims and the most indomitable piracy often raged.

Not surprisingly, with a license dated July 27, 1628, he was promoted by the Venetian Republic (1) to the rank of Captain of the Halberdiers (2) .

In the year 1632 he was sent to Dalmatia, in Sibenik, as commander of the Italian Company to be then assigned, with another license of 6 June 1636, as Major and Commander General, to Zakynthos (3) , one of the most important islands of the Ionian sea where shortly after he ceased to live full of merits and glory.

Tall stature, pleasant appearance, severe eye, spacious forehead, ringed hair, steel armor, halberd in hand, coat of arms with eagle on a red background: this is how Cintio Paulucci was represented in a portrait of his time that unfortunately has not reached us. .

 

Note:

1. The Venetian Republic, starting from the seventeenth century Most Serene Republic of Venice, was a maritime republic with Venice as its capital. Founded according to tradition in 697 by Paoluccio Anafesto, in the course of its one thousand hundred years of history it established itself as one of the major European commercial and naval powers.

Initially extended in the area of the Do g ado (a territory currently comparable to the metropolitan city of Venice) in the course of its history it annexed much of north-eastern Italy, Istria, Dalmatia, the coasts of present-day Montenegro and Albania as well as numerous islands in the Adriatic and eastern Ionian seas. At the height of its expansion, between the 13th and 16th centuries, it also ruled the Peloponnese, Crete and most of the Greek islands, as well as several cities and ports in the eastern Mediterranean .

2. Towards the end of the Middle Ages, the European armies increasingly equipped themselves with units of halberdiers, a body of heavy infantry armed with halberds. This was a long shaft that ended in a two-edged blade and, just below, an ax blade was engaged on one side and a large hook on the other. The halberdiers also wore particular helmets called morions, similar to helmets with a rigid and upward-curved brim, pointed at the front and at the back. The most popular models had a crest or ended with a sharp cusp.

3. Zakynthos is a Greek island (405 km²) with a population of approximately 40,000 inhabitants. The island is located in the Ionian Sea, near the coasts of the Peloponnese and is part of the archipelago of the Ionian islands. Zakynthos was at the center of the Spartan-Athenian battles; it was then one of the Ionian islands under Venetian rule, during which the poet Ugo Foscolo was born, who dedicated the sonnet “A Zacinto” to it; in 1953 it was devastated by a disastrous earthquake.

Sources:

- "History of the land of Fratta now Umbertide" by Antonio Guerrini (completed by Genesio Perugini) - Typography Tiberina Umbertide - 1883

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Filippo Maria Visconti, Duke of Milan

The coat of arms of the Duchy

The Sforzesco Castle
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LAVINIO MAGI and PIETRO PAOLO CRISTIANI

 

They both chose ecclesiastical careers and were at the helm at different times
of the church of Sant'Agata in via dei Priori, one of the oldest churches in Perugia

 

Lavinio Magi

Priest of exemplary and pious customs; rich in doctrine, especially in the theological sciences, in the sacred canons and in the liturgy. He was born in Fratta in 1579 from an honorable family. He studied in the Seminary of Città di Castello under the famous Marcantonio Bonciario, distinguished orator called "The Homer of Italy" by Giusto Lipsio, the most profound critic and the most learned polygraph of those times. Lancellotti in the "Perugian History" tells us that the Magi enjoyed the affection of the very learned bishop Napoleone Comitoli (1) , of Cardinals Torres and Baldeschi, who used his work and his wise men in the most delicate matters of their Sacred Ministry advice.

 

 

 

He was elected parish priest of the Church of S. Agata in Perugia by Camitoli, a benefit to which the most deserving subjects of the clergy were nominated. He was Master of Ecclesiastical Liturgy of which he wrote a highly appreciated volume. Several times he had the office of Diocesan Visitor (2) , Synodal Examiner (3) and President of the Congregation of Christian Doctrine, whose constitutions he wisely reformed in 1626. He was ecclesiastical superior of the Hospital of Perugia elected with full suffrages, a position he held for six years with much advantage of the Pious Place, especially in the arrangement of all the important ancient and modern writings contained in that voluminous Archive. He was also a very accurate reorganizer of the other no less important Archive of the Noble Collegio della Mercanzia, where ancient and precious memories were found.

After many hardships in favor of civil and religious society, at the age of 61, he died of a heart attack on May 31, 1640.

 

Note:

1. He was compared to S. Carlo Borromeo for having been able to bring the renewals of the Council of Trent into the physical and moral structures of the diocese of Perugia with strength and dedication. A man of high principles and of considerable depth, the great artistic and urban development achieved under his episcopate is proof of the energy lavished on the city, such as the complete restoration desired for the church of Sant'Ercolano. He studied canon law and civil law at the University of Bologna , made numerous pastoral visits, was heard in various synods and did his utmost to improve the dioceses of the region. Jurist of the Sacra Rota, he died in Perugia in 1624.

2. In the Catholic Church , an apostolic or diocesan visitor is an ecclesiastical representative with the transitory mission of making a canonical visit of a relatively short duration. The visitor is instructed to investigate a particular circumstance in a diocese or country and to submit a report to the Holy See at the conclusion of the investigation.

3. Within the Catholic curia there is also the so-called "synodal examiner", a theologian appointed by the diocesan prelate to evaluate those who have been selected for sacred orders and to work with parish ministries and preachers.

 

 

Pietro Paolo Cristiani

He was born in Fratta from a wealthy and distinguished family. From an early age he devoted himself to studies with great profit. He graduated in Sacred Sciences having chosen to pursue an ecclesiastical career.

For his integrity and doctrine he was appointed Rector of the parish church of S. Agata (1) in Perugia (where Lavinio Magi, another illustrious fellow citizen of ours, had resided about a century earlier) and for 30 years he supported this ministry with great praise.

At the same time he was one of the most renowned professors of the University of Perugia, occupying the Chair of Dogmatic Theology. For many years he held the position of Librarian in the city library, arranging it in a more orderly and elegant form. He was synodal examiner of the eminent Ansidei and of Monsignor Fornari and finally Consultor of the Tribunal of the Holy Office.

He was the author of many learned literary works, of a famous dialogue entitled "The Grammatico" (taken from an unknown author of 1557) printed in Perugia in 1717 and of some homeland memories existing in the Mariotti Library. Giacinto Visconti, a talented writer of the eighteenth century, sent a letter to P. Calogerà on the works and life of our fellow citizen, a letter that can be found in the library of San Michele in Murano.

Pietro Paolo Cristiani died in the year 1737.

 

Note:

1. The church of Sant'Agata, built seven centuries ago around 1317, is located at the beginning of the very central Via dei Priori, arriving there from Corso Vannucci, known by many faithful and lovers of art history as one of the "caskets" more precious than the Franciscan Gothic style present in Umbria. Inside the church, restored and reopened for worship in February 2015, on the walls and vault there are fresco decorations of considerable historical and artistic interest, from the Umbrian-Sienese school. The restoration work made it possible to find significant pictorial parts on the walls such as the image of St. Francis receiving the stigmata, above the well-known and original face of the "Triform Christ", in front of the right side entrance, and of two saints fathers of the Church painted on the lunettes of the vault above the altar.

Sources:

- "History of the land of Fratta now Umbertide" by Antonio Guerrini (completed by Genesio Perugini) - Typography Tiberina Umbertide - 1883

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CHERUBINO MARTELLI and FELICE REMERI

 

Two Franciscan fathers of Fratta who held prestigious positions, the first as Bishop of Spiga, an ancient city
of the Hellespont, the second as Guardian in the Sacred Convent of Jerusalem and Guardian of the Sepulcher of Jesus Christ.

 

Cherubino Martelli

News of this illustrious fellow citizen of ours, whose date of birth is unknown, was provided by the Perugian father Ottavio Lancellotti in his memoirs entitled "Scorta Sagra" (1) .

He was a Father among the Minor Observants of St. Francis and due to the integrity and breadth of his doctrine he occupied the most important offices of that Congregation until the moment when the eminent Cardinal Andrea della Valle, bishop of Malta, wanted him as his theologian.

The fame of his profound science and his mirrored virtues quickly reached the Vatican and Pope Leo X, the great "Patron of the Scholars", awarded him the title of Episcopal of Spiga, an ancient city of Hellespont (2) .

He died in Cetona (3), land of Tuscany, in 1520 in the odor of holiness. His body was buried in a modest tomb (4) in that church of S. Francesco but (as a chronicle of that place tells us) due to the many prodigies worked towards him the devotion of the faithful increased immensely so that, after exhuming his body and found intact, it was solemnly placed under the main altar in an elegant urn.

 

Note:

1. 2-volume paper manuscript left with will at the Augusta Library in 1654.

2. The Hellespont, today Dardanelli, is the strait that divides the Aegean Sea from the Black Sea.

3. Pretty village in the province of Siena between the Val d'Orcia and the Val di Chiana. In 1418 Cetona was conquered by Braccio Fortebraccio da Montone.

4. Sarcophagus for the dead.

 

 

Felice Remeri

His date of birth is unknown, it is known that he was the son of Bernardino Remeri dalla Fratta and brother of a Luca Remeri, notary of the venerable Apostolic Chamber. Felice from his youth devoted himself to the study of the sacred sciences and became a religious of the Observance of San Francesco. Here he distinguished himself as a supreme theologian and as an exemplary Father, to the point of holding the most important offices of his Congregation.

Clement VII (Giulio de 'Medici) with a special Brief (1) appointed him to the prestigious office

of Guardian in the Sacred Convent of Jerusalem (2) , where the Sepulcher is kept

of Jesus Christ. The notary Benedetto De Sanctis, an 87-year old man of integrity, said

and our fellow citizen, who when Father Felice threw himself at the feet of Clement VII for

to have the blessing of farewell, so exclaimed the inspired Pontiff "Please God,

Friar Felice, may we together with you receive the palm tree in that blessed land

of Martyrdom! "

Full of sacred fervor he left Italy and after having sailed for a long time